Portal:Weimar Republic

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WEIMAR REPUBLIC


Wappen Deutsches Reich (Weimarer Republik).svg
The Weimar Republic (German: Weimarer Republik [ˈvaɪmaʁɐ ʁepuˈbliːk] (About this sound listen)) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place. The official name of the state remained Deutsches Reich (English: German Realm), unchanged since 1871. In English, the country was usually known simply as Germany.

A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for the Deutsches Reich was written and adopted on 11 August 1919. In its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism (with paramilitaries—both left- and right-wing) as well as contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War.

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Golden Twenties

Tea dance in the garden of the Esplanade hotel, Berlin 1926

The Golden Twenties, also known as The Happy Twenties, is the decade of the 1920s in Germany. The era began with the end of World War I and ended with the Wall Street Crash of 1929.

The German term (Goldene Zwanziger) is often applied to that country's experience of healthy economic growth, expansion of liberal values in society, and spurt in experimental and creative efforts in the field of art. Before this period, the Weimar Republic had experienced record-breaking levels of inflation of one trillion percent between January 1919 and November 1923. The inflation was so severe that printed currency was often used as domestic fuel and everyday requirements such as food, soap, and electricity cost a wheelbarrow full of banknotes. It was only after radical economic reform measures initiated by the Weimar Republic, such as introduction of a new currency, the Rentenmark, tighter fiscal control, and a reduction in bureaucratic hurdles led to an environment of economic stability and prosperity in Germany. (more...)

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Marlene Dietrich in her classic, The Blue Angel, cabaret pose
Marlene Dietrich in her classic, The Blue Angel, cabaret pose

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Anita Berber

Anita Berber in 1918

Anita Berber (10 June 1899 – 10 November 1928) was a German dancer, actress, and writer who was the subject of an Otto Dix painting. She lived during the Weimar period.

Born in Leipzig to Felix Berber, First Violinist with the Municipal Orchestra, and Lucie Berber, an aspiring actress and singer, who later divorced, she was raised mainly by her grandmother in Dresden. By the age of 16, she had moved to Berlin and made her debut as a cabaret dancer. By 1918 she was working in film, and she began dancing nude in 1919. Scandalously androgynous, she quickly made a name for herself. She wore heavy dancer's make-up, which on the black-and-white photos and films of the time came across as jet black lipstick painted across the heart-shaped part of her skinny lips, and charcoaled eyes. (more...)

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Paul von Hindenburg
A presidential cabinet led by Hitler would develop into a party dictatorship, with all its consequences for an extreme aggravation of the conflicts within the German people.
Paul von Hindenburg, November 1932

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TOPICS

Chronologie of the Weimar Republic
Genesis (1918-1919) :
Formation (1919-1920) :
Normalization :

500,000,000 marks, Dresden, 1923

Demise (1933) :
Armed Forces

War Ensign of the Reichswehr

Politics
Weimar National Assembly • (Weimar Constitution) • Reichstag (Reichstag building), Reichsrat • President of Germany
  • Political parties
Communists : KPD (Young Communist League of Germany, Die Rote Fahne) • KAPD • KPO
Social democratic : USPD • SPD • SAPD
Political Catholic : BVP • Zentrum
Liberal : DDP • DVP • DFP • FVP • NLP
Conservative : DNVP
Right-wing : DFVP
Far-right : DAP • NSDAP
Weimar Coalition
Arts and Culture

1927's Metropolis by Fritz Lang was the first feature length science fiction film in history. It was produced at Studio Babelsberg, Germany.

Scientists (Nobel Prize)

Albert Einstein, official 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics photograph.

Physics : Johannes Stark (1919) • Albert Einstein (1921) • James Franck (1925) • Gustav Hertz (1925) • Werner Karl Heisenberg (1932)
Chemistry : Walther Hermann Nernst (1920)  • Heinrich Otto Wieland (1927) • Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus (1928) • Hans Fischer (1930) • Carl Bosch (1931)  • Friedrich Bergius (1931)
Medicine : Otto Fritz Meyerhof (1922) • Otto Heinrich Warburg (1931)
Economy
Reichsmark • Papiermark • Rentenmark • Hyperinflation
Reichsbank
Symbols
Flag of the Weimar Republic • Das Lied der Deutschen

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