Portal:Weimar Republic

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WEIMAR REPUBLIC


Wappen Deutsches Reich (Weimarer Republik).svg
Weimar Republic (German: Weimarer Republik [ˈvaɪmaʁɐ ʁepuˈbliːk] (About this sound listen)) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state between 1919 and 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place. The official name of the state was still Deutsches Reich; it had remained unchanged since 1871. In English the country was usually known simply as Germany.

A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for the Deutsches Reich was written, and adopted on 11 August 1919. In its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism (with paramilitaries – both left- and right-wing); and contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War.

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Occupation of the Ruhr

French soldiers in the Ruhr in 1923, possibly harassing or ordering a citizen.

The Occupation of the Ruhr (German: Ruhrbesetzung) was a period of military occupation of the German Ruhr valley by France and Belgium between 1923 and 1925 in response to the Weimar Republic's failure to continue its reparation payments in the aftermath of World War I.

The Ruhr region had been occupied by Allied troops in the immediate aftermath of the First World War, during the Occupation of the Rhineland (1918–1919). Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles (1919), which formally ended the war, Germany accepted responsibility for the damages caused in the war and was obliged to pay war reparations to the various Allies, principally France. The total sum of reparations demanded from Germany—around 226 billion gold marks (US $878 billion in 2018)—was decided by an Inter-Allied Reparations Commission. In 1921, the amount was reduced to 132 billion (at that time, $31.4 billion (US $442 billion in 2018), or £6.6 billion (UK £284 billion in 2018)). Even with the reduction, the debt was huge. As some of the payments were in industrial raw materials, German factories were unable to function, and the German economy suffered, further damaging the country's ability to pay. (more...)

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The Graf Zeppelin flies over the Victory Column, 1928.
The Graf Zeppelin flies over the Victory Column, 1928.

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Hugo Preuß

Hugo Preuß

Hugo Preuß (Preuss) (28 October 1860 – 9 October 1925) was a German lawyer and liberal politician. He was the author of the draft version of the constitution that was passed by the Weimar National Assembly and came into force in August 1919. He based it on three principles: all political authority belongs to the people; that the state should be organized on a federal basis; and that the Reich should form a democratic Rechtsstaat (state based in law) within the international community. (more...)

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Rosa Luxemburg
Act! Act! Courageously, decisively and constantly… disarm the counter-revolution, arm the masses, occupy all positions of power. Act quickly!
Rosa Luxemburg, January 1919

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TOPICS

Chronologie of the Weimar Republic
Genesis (1918-1919) :
Formation (1919-1920) :
Normalization :

500,000,000 marks, Dresden, 1923

Demise (1933) :
Armed Forces

War Ensign of the Reichswehr

Politics
Weimar National Assembly • (Weimar Constitution) • Reichstag (Reichstag building), Reichsrat • President of Germany
  • Political parties
Communists : KPD (Young Communist League of Germany, Die Rote Fahne) • KAPD • KPO
Social democratic : USPD • SPD • SAPD
Political Catholic : BVP • Zentrum
Liberal : DDP • DVP • DFP • FVP • NLP
Conservative : DNVP
Right-wing : DFVP
Far-right : DAP • NSDAP
Weimar Coalition
Arts and Culture

1927's Metropolis by Fritz Lang was the first feature length science fiction film in history. It was produced at Studio Babelsberg, Germany.

Scientists (Nobel Prize)

Albert Einstein, official 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics photograph.

Physics : Johannes Stark (1919) • Albert Einstein (1921) • James Franck (1925) • Gustav Hertz (1925) • Werner Karl Heisenberg (1932)
Chemistry : Walther Hermann Nernst (1920)  • Heinrich Otto Wieland (1927) • Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus (1928) • Hans Fischer (1930) • Carl Bosch (1931)  • Friedrich Bergius (1931)
Medicine : Otto Fritz Meyerhof (1922) • Otto Heinrich Warburg (1931)
Economy
Reichsmark • Papiermark • Rentenmark • Hyperinflation
Reichsbank
Symbols
Flag of the Weimar Republic • Das Lied der Deutschen

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