Portal:Syrian Civil War

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Montage of the Syrian Civil War.png

The Syrian Civil War (Arabic: الحرب الأهلية السورية‎, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.

The unrest in Syria, part of a wider wave of the 2011 Arab Spring protests, grew out of discontent with the Assad government and escalated to an armed conflict after protests calling for his removal were violently suppressed. The war is being fought by several factions: the Syrian government and its international allies, a loose alliance of Sunni Arab rebel groups (including the Free Syrian Army), the majority-Kurdish Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), Salafi jihadist groups (including al-Nusra Front), and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), with a number of countries in the region and beyond being either directly involved or providing support to one or another faction.

Iran, Russia and Hezbollah support the Syrian government militarily, with Russia conducting air operations since September 2015. The U.S.-led international coalition, established in 2014 with the declared purpose of countering ISIL, has conducted airstrikes against ISIL as well as against government and pro-government targets. Turkey, on the other hand, has become deeply involved since 2016, actively supporting the Syrian opposition and occupying large swathes of northwestern Syria. Read more...

Selected article

Fighters of the al-Bab military council, which is part of the TFSA's Hawar Kilis Operations Room, during the Battle of al-Bab

The Turkey-backed Free Syrian Army (abbreviated as TFSA), partially reorganized as the Syrian National Army by Turkey since 30 May 2017, is an informal armed Syrian opposition structure mainly composed of Syrian Arab and Syrian Turkmen rebels operating in northern Syria, mostly being a part of Operation Euphrates Shield or groups active in the area that are allied to the groups participating in the operation. The general aim of the group is to assist Turkey in creating a "safe zone" in Syria and to establish a National Army, which will operate in the land gained as a result of Operation Euphrates Shield and the Hawar Kilis Operations Room. They are opponents of the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), ISIL and the Syrian government's Syrian Arab Army, though as yet, they have had few engagements against the Syrian Army. The TFSA also have a law enforcement equivalent, with the also Turkey-backed though separate from the TFSA, the Free Police.

Incidents and events




Impact on historic heritage

Damaged heritage sites

Displaced and refugees

Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Sep. 2012.
Syrian refugees
Refugee camps
European migrant crisis
Human rights violations

Related portals

Selected biography

Staffan de Mistura September 2015 (21108901363).jpg

Staffan de Mistura (born 25 January 1947) is a long-serving Italian-Swedish diplomat and former member of the Italian government. After a 40-year career in various United Nations agencies, he was appointed Undersecretary of State (Junior Minister) for Foreign Affairs in the Italian cabinet headed by Mario Monti. He is currently the director of Villa San Michele on Capri and United Nations special envoy for the Syria crisis.

De Mistura's previous UN posts have included that of Special Representative of the Secretary-General in Iraq (2007–2009) and Afghanistan (2010–2011), Personal Representative of the Secretary-General for Southern Lebanon (2001–2004), and Director of the UN Information Center in Rome (2000–2001). His work has taken him to many of the world's most volatile trouble-spots including Afghanistan, Iraq, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and the former Yugoslavia. Read more...

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Wounded civilians arrive at hospital Aleppo.jpg

Wounded civilians arrive to the Aleppo hospital on the course of Syrian Civil War, October 2012


Syrian Arab Republic and allies

Flag of the Ba'ath Party.svg Syrian Ba'ath Party
Jaysh al-Sha'bi
National Defense Force

Allies militias:

al-Abbas brigade
Lijan militias
Emblem of the Palestine Liberation Army.svg Palestinian Liberation Army

Supported by:

Syrian Opposition

Syria Syrian opposition (SRCC)
Free Syrian Army
Army of Mujahedeen
Ajnad al-Sham Islamic Union
Authenticity and Development Front
Jabhat Ansar al-Islam
al-Zenki movement

Supported by:

Flag of the Arab League.svg Arab League
Flag of Qatar.svg Qatar
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Saudi Arabia
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey
Turkish-basked forces:
 Turkey (2016-present
Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army (2017-present)
Islamist factions:
Syrian Islamic Liberation Front (until 2013)
Islamic Front (Syria) (2013-16)
Ahrar al-Sham
Jaysh al-Islam

Salafist and ally groups

Army of Conquest (2015-17)
Flag of the Al-Nusra Front.svg Al-Nusra Front
Ahrar al-Sham
Sham Legion

Other allied groups:

Muhajirin wa-Ansar Alliance
Jabhat Ansar al-Din
Tahrir al-Sham (2017-present)

Islamic State

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
Military of ISIL


Syrian Kurdistan (SDF)

Allied militias:

Supported by:

International anti-ISIL coalition



Recognized content

Featured articles

Good articles

Map of current territorial control

Current military situation in the Syrian Civil War.
  Controlled by the Ba'athist Syria
  Controlled by North Syria Federation (SDF)
  Controlled by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
  Controlled by Tahrir al-Sham
  Controlled by Syrian Opposition and TFSA

(For a more detailed map, see Cities and towns during the Syrian Civil War)


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Learning resources

Travel guides



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