Portal:Syria

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The Syria portal

Syria's location on a map of the Middle East and the world.

Syria (error: {{lang-xx}}: text has italic markup (help)) is a country in the Middle East, bordering Lebanon to the west, Israel to the southwest, Jordan to the south, Iraq to the east, and Turkey to the north. The modern state of Syria attained independence from the French mandate of Syria in 1946, but can trace its roots to the fourth millennium BC; its capital city, Damascus, was the seat of the Umayyad Empire and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Empire.

Historically, Syria has often included the territories of modern Lebanon, Israel, Palestine and parts of Jordan, but excluded the Jazira region in the north-east of the modern Syrian state. In the geographical sense, the area of the Levant is also known as Syrian region or by the Arabic name Bilad al-Sham (بلاد الشام), for the Arab province name during the Middle Ages. Since the Six-Day War in 1967, Israel occupies a large share of the Golan Heights in the southwest of the country; a dispute with Turkey over the Hatay Province has subsided. Since March 2011, Syria has been embroiled in civil war in the wake of uprisings (considered an extension of the Arab Spring, the mass movement of revolutions and protests in the Arab world) against Assad and the Ba'athist government. An alternative government was formed by the opposition umbrella group, the Syrian National Coalition, in March 2012. Representatives of this government were subsequently invited to take up Syria's seat at the Arab League.[1] Further into the war, Syria was torn among at least four warring factions - the Syrian government, the Opposition, the self-proclaimed Kurdish enclave and the radical Islamist Islamic State of Iraq and Syria.

The name Syria comes from the ancient Greek name for the former colonial territories of Assyria such as Canaan and Aram. At the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea between Egypt and Arabia to the south and Cilicia to the north, stretching inland to include Mesopotamia, and having an uncertain border to the northeast that Pliny the Elder describes as including from west to east Commagene, Sophene, and Adiabene, "formerly known as Assyria" (N.H. 5.66). By Pliny's time, however, this larger Syria had been divided into a number of provinces under the Roman Empire (but politically independent from each other): Judaea (or "Judea" and later renamed Palestina in AD 135—the region corresponding to the modern states of Israel and Jordan and the Palestinian territories) in the extreme southwest, Phoenicia corresponding to Lebanon, with Damascena to the inland side of Phoenicia, Coele-Syria (or "Hollow Syria") south of the Eleutheris river, and Mesopotamia.

Syria had a population of 19 million as of 2010, though it has decreased on the course of Syrian civil war. The majority are Sunni Muslims, some 16% are other Muslim groups, including the Alawi, and Shi'a denominations, the rest are Druze and about 10% Christians of various churches. Since 1963, the country has been governed by the Baath Party; the head of state since 1970 has been a member of the Assad family. Syria's current President is Bashar al-Assad, son of Hafez al-Assad, who held office from 1970 until his death in 2000.

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Byzantine Imperial Eagle

The Byzantine Empire was the eastern section of the Roman Empire which remained in existence after the fall of the west. The empire is commonly considered to have existed from AD 395 to 1453. The empire reached its height under the Macedonian emperors of the late 9th, 10th and early 11th centuries. The Fourth Crusade had a devastating effect on the empire, and it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century. (more...)

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Maryana Marrash

Selected building

The fortified entrance

The Citadel of Aleppo is an immense fortification in the centre of the old city of 'Aleppo, northern Syria. It is considered to be one of the oldest and largest castles in the world. Usage of the Citadel hill dates back at least to the middle of the 3rd millennium BC. Subsequently occupied by many civilizations including the Greeks, Byzantines, Ayyubids and Mamluks, the majority of the construction as it stands today is thought to originate from the Ayyubid period. A great deal of conservation work has taken place over the last seven years by the Aga Khan Trust for Culture in collaboration with the Syrian Directorate General of Antiquities.

The inner gate

The recently discovered Temple of the Ancient Storm God, Hadda, dates use of the hill to the middle of the 3rd millennium BC, and it is referred to in Cuniform texts from Ebla and Mari refer to the temple. The prophet Abraham is said to have milked his sheep on the citadel hill. After the decline of the Neo-Hittite state centred in Aleppo, the Assyrians dominated the area (4-8th century BC), followed by the Neo-Babylonians and the Persians (539-333).

see also : Crac des Chevaliers

Wikinews

  • October 21: United States judges block third version of President Trump's travel ban
  • August 14: Mozilla, Creative Commons, Wikimedia Foundation announce Bassel Khartabil Free Culture fellowship following execution of open culture activist
  • February 26: Syrian peace talks begin in Geneva
  • January 28: German teenager sentenced to six years for stabbing police officer
  • January 26: Czech diplomats secure release of Polish 'terrorist' in Syria
  • December 26: Plane carrying 92 crashes into Black Sea near Sochi
  • December 15: Evacuation corridor allows rebels and civilians to leave Aleppo
  • November 6: On the campaign trail in the USA, October 2016

Selected biography

Shukri al-Quwatli (1891, Damascus, Syria — June 30, 1967, Beirut, Lebanon) (Arabic: شكري القوتلي) was the president of Syria from 1943-1949 and 1955-1958. Quwatli entered Syrian politics in the 1930s as a member of the National Bloc, a coalition of Arab parties that led the opposition to French rule. As a young man, he had been involved in al-Fatat, an underground opposition group in Ottoman Syria, and been arrested for his activities in 1916. In jail, because of harsh torture, he feared that he would tell the names of his comrades in al-Fatat. To avoid this he slit open his wrist in a suicide attempt but was saved at the last minute by his friend and colleague Dr Ahmad Qadri. He was released when World War I ended to become a civil servant in post-Ottoman era of King Faisal I. After Atassi resigned the presidency in 1939 over objections to continued French intervention in Syria, several years of (WWII-related) instability and direct French and British military ruled followed. The National Bloc remained the dominant expression of Syrian nationalism, and, when elections were again held in 1943, the bloc helped elect Quwatli president. His major preoccupation was to conclude a treaty with France, which had exercised control over Syria for more than two decades. This was accomplished with British help, and by 1946 all foreign troops had evacuated. In 1947 Quwatli enacted an amendment that removed a one-term limit from the constitution, and he was reelected in 1948.


see also : Nizar Qabbani, Hafez al-Assad

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Selected picture

Aleppo Citadel 02 - Bastion.jpg
Bastion of the Citadel of Aleppo in northern Syria

Categories

Quotes

Philip Hitti : "the scholars consider Syria as the teacher for the human characteristics,"

Andrea Parrout : "each civilized person in the world should admit that he has two home countries: the one he was born in, and Syria."

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Join us in Wikiproject Syria

The main goals of this WikiProject are to:

  • Improve and maintain Syria-related articles: fact and prose checking, expanding and ensuring currency of information, providing reliable citations and references, maintaining a NPOV, bringing more selected articles up to Featured article or Good article status;
  • Expand Wikipedia's coverage of Syria-related topics: check for completeness of articles, start new articles, expand entries on neglected subjects;
  • Maintaining consistency in article organization: maintaining a similar structure, coverage and presentation across articles, maintaining categories and links;
  • Develop tools and resources for others to use in article production: templates, categories, infoboxes, diagrams, base maps, useful and commonly used references;
  • Coordinating collaborations: between editors to establish priorities and avoid duplication of effort, gaining consensus on disputed issues.

Syria topics

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  1. ^ Black, Ian (26 March 2013). "Syrian opposition takes Arab League seat". The Guardian. 
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