# Portal:Statistics

Statistical methods are used to summarize and describe a collection of data; this is called Statistics arose no later than the 18th century from the need of states to collect data on their people and economies, in order to administer them. The meaning broadened in the early 19th century to include the collection and analysis of data in general.
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A polar area diagram by Florence Nightingale. The polar area diagram is similar to a pie chart, except that the sectors are each of an equal angle and differ rather in how far each sector extends from the centre of the circle, enabling multiple comparisons on one diagram. This "DIAGRAM of the CAUSES of MORTALITY in the ARMY in the EAST" was published in Notes on Matters Affecting the Health, Efficiency, and Hospital Administration of the British Army and sent to Queen Victoria in 1858. It shows the number of deaths due to preventable diseases (blue), wounds (red), and other causes (black).
- ... that proper design of a sampling frame can be crucial in statistical research?
- ... that least-squares spectral analysis is a method for estimating a frequency spectrum, based on a least squares fit between data and trigonometric functions?
- ... that the Holtsmark distribution was proposed in 1919 as a model for the gravitational field of stars?
- ... that variables and attributes are some of the most basic concepts in science?
- ... that although randomness had long been viewed as an obstacle, it is now used as a tool for designing better algorithms?
- ... that the Jadad scale is the world's most widely used means of assessing the methodological quality of clinical trials?
- ... that Ulpian's life table predicted a life expectancy of 19 to 23 years for citizens of the Roman Empire?
- ... that there are many ways to create misleading graphs?
- ... that while the center of gravity for a set of points is located at the spot from which the
*sum of the squares of distances*to all the points is minimized, the geometric median is the spot from which the*sum of distances*is minimized?
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