# Portal:Statistics

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Statistical methods are used to summarize and describe a collection of data; this is called Statistics arose no later than the 18th century from the need of states to collect data on their people and economies, in order to administer them. The meaning broadened in the early 19th century to include the collection and analysis of data in general. ## Selected article
The The margin of error is usually defined as the radius of a confidence interval for a particular statistic from a survey. One example is the percent of people who prefer product A versus product B. When a single, global margin of error is reported for a survey, it refers to the maximum margin of error for all reported percentages using the full sample from the survey. If the statistic is a percentage, this maximum margin of error can be calculated as the radius of the confidence interval for a reported percentage of 50%. The margin of error has been described as an "absolute" quantity, equal to a confidence interval radius for the statistic. For example, if the true value is 50 percentage points, and the statistic has a confidence interval radius of 5 percentage points, then we say the margin of error is 5 percentage points. As another example, if the true value is 50 people, and the statistic has a confidence interval radius of 5 people, then we might say the margin of error is 5 people.
## Selected biography
t-test and Student's t-distribution. He joined the Dublin brewery of Arthur Guinness & Son in 1899, where he applied his statistical knowledge both in the brewery and on the farm to the selection of the best yielding varieties of barley. Gosset's key 1908 papers addressed the brewer's concern with small samples. To prevent further disclosure of confidential information, Guinness prohibited its employees from publishing any papers regardless of the contained information, so Gosset used the pseudonym Student for his publications to avoid their detection by his employer.
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## Did you know?- ... that Gustav Elfving invented the optimal design of experiments, and so minimized the cost of a cartographic survey, while trapped in his tent in storm-ridden Greenland?
- ... that in 2009, Revolution Analytics named Norman H. Nie, one of the original SPSS developers, as their new CEO?
- ... that proper design of a sampling frame can be crucial in statistical research?
- ... that least-squares spectral analysis is a method for estimating a frequency spectrum, based on a least squares fit between data and trigonometric functions?
- ... that the Holtsmark distribution was proposed in 1919 as a model for the gravitational field of stars?
- ... that variables and attributes are some of the most basic concepts in science?
- ... that although randomness had long been viewed as an obstacle, it is now used as a tool for designing better algorithms?
- ... that the Jadad scale is the world's most widely used means of assessing the methodological quality of clinical trials?
- ... that Ulpian's life table predicted a life expectancy of 19 to 23 years for citizens of the Roman Empire?
## Topics in Statistics
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