# Portal:Statistics

Statistical methods are used to summarize and describe a collection of data; this is called Statistics arose no later than the 18th century from the need of states to collect data on their people and economies, in order to administer them. The meaning broadened in the early 19th century to include the collection and analysis of data in general.
The The margin of error is usually defined as the radius of a confidence interval for a particular statistic from a survey. One example is the percent of people who prefer product A versus product B. When a single, global margin of error is reported for a survey, it refers to the maximum margin of error for all reported percentages using the full sample from the survey. If the statistic is a percentage, this maximum margin of error can be calculated as the radius of the confidence interval for a reported percentage of 50%. The margin of error has been described as an "absolute" quantity, equal to a confidence interval radius for the statistic. For example, if the true value is 50 percentage points, and the statistic has a confidence interval radius of 5 percentage points, then we say the margin of error is 5 percentage points. As another example, if the true value is 50 people, and the statistic has a confidence interval radius of 5 people, then we might say the margin of error is 5 people.
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- ...that though he had a brilliant mathematical career, the statistician Pat Moran had difficulty with simple arithmetic and wrote himself, 'Arithmetic I could not do'?
- ...that as a graduate student at UC Berkeley in 1939, George Dantzig solved two then-unanswered questions related to the Neyman–Pearson lemma, because he mistakenly thought they were a homework assignment?
- ...that one result of the birthday problem is that among a group of 23 (or more) randomly chosen people, there is more than 50% probability that some pair of them will both have been born on the same day of the year?
- ...that the term
*bias*is not necessarily pejorative in statistics, since biased estimators may have desirable properties (such as a smaller mean squared error than any unbiased estimator), and that in extreme cases the only unbiased estimators are not even within the convex hull of the parameter space? - ...that William Sealy Gosset published under the pseudonym
*Student*in order to avoid detection by his employer, and so his most famous achievement is now referred to as Student's t-distribution, which might otherwise have been Gosset's t-distribution? - ...that in 1747, by dividing 12 men suffering from scurvy into six pairs and giving each group different additions to their basic diet for a period of two weeks, the surgeon James Lind conducted one of the first controlled experiments?
- ...that the Cauchy distribution is an example of a distribution which has no mean, variance or higher moments defined?
- ...that according to Benford's law, the first digit from many real-life sources of data is 1 almost one third of the time?
- ...that the Law of Truly Large Numbers of Diaconis and Mosteller states that with a sample size large enough, any outrageous thing is likely to happen?
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