Portal:South Sudan

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South Sudan

Flag of South Sudan
Coat of Arms of South Sudan
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South Sudan (/sˈdæn, -ˈdɑːn/ (About this sound listen)), officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, Is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa. The country gained its independence from Sudan in 2011, making it the newest country. Its capital and largest city is Juba.

South Sudan is bordered by Sudan to the north, Ethiopia to the east, Kenya to the southeast, Uganda to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southwest, and the Central African Republic to the west. It includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd, formed by the White Nile and known locally as the Bahr al Jabal. Nilotic peoples form the majority of its population. The territories of modern South Sudan and the Republic of the Sudan were occupied by Egypt under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty, and later governed as an Anglo-Egyptian condominium until Sudanese independence was achieved in 1956. Following the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. A second Sudanese civil war soon broke out, and ended with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005. Later that year, southern autonomy was restored when an Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed. South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011, following a referendum that passed with 98.83% of the vote.

South Sudan has a population of 12 million, with Christianity the majority religion. It is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the East African Community, and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development. In July 2012, South Sudan signed the Geneva Conventions. South Sudan has suffered ethnic violence and has been in a civil war since 2013. As of 2017, despite not being ranked bottom in the latest World Happiness Report, it had the highest score on the Fragile States Index (formerly, the Failed States Index), surpassing Somalia.

Selected panorama

Mount Kinyeti
Credit: AIMikhin

Panoramic from the top of Mount Kinyeti

Selected article

Map showing Mongalla and Juba, South Sudan.

Mongalla, South Sudan or Mangalla is a community in Central Equatoria state in South Sudan, on the east side of the Bahr al Jebel or White Nile river. It lies about 75 miles (121 km) by road northeast of Juba. The towns of Terekeka and Bor lie downstream, north of Mongalla.

During the colonial era, Mongalla was capital of Mongalla Province, which reached south to Uganda and east towards Ethiopia. On 7 December 1917 the last of the northern Sudanese troops were withdrawn from Mongalla, replaced by Equatorial troops. These southern and at least nominally Christian troops remained the only permanent garrison of the town and province until their mutiny in August 1955. Mongalla and the surrounding province was then absorbed into Equatoria Province in 1956. The town was taken and retaken more than once during the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983–2005).

An experimental station was established to grow sugar at Mongalla in the 1950s, and there were plans to establish commercial operations. However, after independence in 1956 the Khartoum government shifted the sugar project to the north, where it is grown under much less favorable conditions with heavy irrigation. A sugar, clothing, and a weaving factory was established in Mongalla in the 1970s but operations failed to get beyond their trial phase and diminished as conflict grew in the region in the early 1980s. In April 2006 the President of Southern Sudan, Salva Kiir Mayardit, named Mongalla as one of the Nile ports to be the first to be rehabilitated.

Selected biography

John Garang waving to the people

Guor Marial (born 15 April 1984) is a South Sudanese track and field athlete. He is a Dinka tribesman.

Marial competed in the men's marathon at the 2012 Summer Olympics. Because South Sudan did not yet have a recognized national Olympic committee (NOC), Marial competed under the Olympic Flag at the 2012 Olympics, rather than the South Sudanese flag. He is one of four athletes competing in the 2012 Summer Olympics under the Olympic flag rather than that of an individual country.

The National Olympic Committee of Sudan offered to allow Marial to compete as a member of the Sudanese team. Marial rejected this offer, saying, "It's not right for me to do that. It's not right for me to represent the country I refuged from." He went on to say, "If I ran for Sudan, I would be betraying my people. I would be dishonoring the two million people who died for our freedom."

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Selected picture

Train Sudan towards Wau.jpg
Credit: Bertramz

Train towards Wau in South Sudan.

In the news

Wikinews South Sudan portal
  • March 27: Six aid workers dead in ambush in South Sudan
  • September 17: South Sudan fuel tanker explosion kills dozens
  • August 27: South Sudanese President Salva Kiir signs peace deal
  • December 22: Rebels take over South Sudan oil regions
  • January 26: 'Davos man' versus 'Camp Igloo'; 42nd World Economic Forum convenes in Swiss alps
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