Portal:SAARC

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South Asia or Southern Asia, is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate, which rises above sea level as Nepal and northern parts of India situated south of the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush. South Asia is bounded on the south by the Indian Ocean and on land (clockwise, from west) by West Asia, Central Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia.

South Asia covers about 5.2 million km2 (2 million mi2), which is 11.71% of the Asian continent or 3.5% of the world's land surface area. The population of South Asia is about 1.891 billion or about one fourth of the world's population, making it both the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region in the world. Overall, it accounts for about 39.49% of Asia's population, over 24% of the world's population, and is home to a vast array of people.

In 2010, South Asia had the world's largest population of Hindus, Jains and Sikhs. It also has the largest population of Muslims in the Asia-Pacific region, as well as over 35 million Christians and 25 million Buddhists.


South Asia (excluding internal borders) (orthographic projection).svg
  Member states   Observer states
  Member states
  Observer states
Headquarters Kathmandu
Official languages English
Demonym(s) South Asian
Member states
Leaders
Pakistan Amjad Hussain B. Sial
Establishment 8 December 1985
Area
• Total
5,099,611 km2 (1,968,971 sq mi) (7th)
• Water (%)
6.8
Population
• 2015 estimate
1,713,870,000 (1st)
• Density
336.1/km2 (870.5/sq mi)
GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
US$11.64 trillion (3rd)
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Total
US$ 3.31 trillion (5th)
Currency
Time zone UTC+4:30 to +6 (Afghanistan Time(UTC+4:30), Pakistan Standard Time (PST), Maldives Time(both UTC+5:00), Indian Standard Time (IST), Sri Lanka Standard Time (SLST)(bothUTC+5:30), Nepal Standard Time (NST)(UTC+5:45), Bangladesh Standard Time (BST), Bhutan Time (bothUTC+6:00))
Calling code
Internet TLD .asia
Website
www.saarc-sec.org

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union of nations in South Asia. Its member states include Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, the Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. SAARC comprises 3% of the world's area, 21% of the world's population and 3.8% (US$2.9 trillion) of the global economy, as of 2015.

SAARC was founded in Dhaka on 8 December 1985. Its secretariat is based in Kathmandu, Nepal. The organization promotes development of economic and regional integration. It launched the South Asian Free Trade Area in 2006. SAARC maintains permanent diplomatic relations at the United Nations as an observer and has developed links with multilateral entities, including the European Union.


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Selected Article

The Governor-General of India (or, from 1858 to 1947, officially the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was originally the head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state. The office was created in 1773, with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William. The officer had direct control only over Fort William, but supervised other East India Company officials in India. Complete authority over all of British India was granted in 1833, and the official came to be known as the "Governor-General of India".

In 1858, as a consequence of the Indian Mutiny the previous year, the territories and assets of the East India Company came under the direct control of the British Crown; as a consequence the Company Raj was succeeded by the British Raj. The Governor-General (now also the Viceroy) headed the central government of India, which administered the provinces of British India, including the Punjab, Bengal, Bombay, Madras, the United Provinces, and others. However, much of India was not ruled directly by the British Government; outside the provinces of British India, there were hundreds of nominally independent princely states or "native states", whose relationship was not with the British Government or the United Kingdom, but rather one of homage directly with the British Monarch as sovereign successor to the Mughal Emperors. From 1858, to reflect the Governor-General's new additional role as the Monarch's representative in re the fealty relationships vis the princely states, the additional title of Viceroy was granted, such that the new office was entitled Viceroy and Governor-General of India. This was usually shortened to Viceroy of India.

The title of Viceroy was abandoned when British India split into the two independent dominions of India and Pakistan, but the office of Governor-General continued to exist in each country separately—until they adopted republican constitutions in 1950 and 1956, respectively.

Until 1858, the Governor-General was selected by the Court of Directors of the East India Company, to whom he was responsible. Thereafter, he was appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the British Government; the Secretary of State for India, a member of the UK Cabinet, was responsible for instructing him or her on the exercise of their powers. After 1947, the Sovereign continued to appoint the Governor-General, but thereafter did so on the advice of the newly-sovereign Indian Government.

Governors-General served at the pleasure of the Sovereign, though the practice was to have them serve five-year terms. Governors-General could have their commission rescinded; and if one was removed, or left, a provisional Governor-General was sometimes appointed until a new holder of the office could be chosen. The first Governor-General of British India was Lord William Bentinck, and the first Governor-General of independent India was Louis, Lord Mountbatten. (More...)

Selected Quotation

Gautama Buddha

Selected image

Namche Bazaar
Namche Bazaar in the Khumbu region of Nepal close to Mount Everest. The town is built on terraces in what resembles a giant Greek amphitheatre.
Photo credit: Kogo

South Asia News

15 December 2018 – Kashmir conflict
Indian soldiers kill at least 7 people in a crowd of protesters and 9 civilians are critically injured after the army surrounds a village in the Pulwama region. Three militants and one soldier are also killed. (The Independent)
15 December 2018 – Afghanistan–Pakistan relations
Pakistani, Afghan and Chinese officials hold talks in Kabul aimed at ending the region's conflicts. (Al Jazeera)
14 December 2018 –
Six government officials are killed and 14 others are wounded in an attack in Balochistan, Pakistan. The BLA claims responsibility. (Al Jazeera)
13 December 2018 – 2018 Strasbourg attack
A Frenchman originally from Afghanistan who was wounded and left brain-dead from the attack dies from his injuries. (Euronews)
12 December 2018 – War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
The Afghan National Army abandons the western Shib Koh District after the government failed to resupply troops stationed there. The district, which borders Iran, is now effectively under Taliban control. (Reuters)
The Taliban claims responsibility for a suicide bombing that killed 12 people, including 8 civilians in Kabul. (Tolo News)

Selected Member Country


Portal:SAARC/Afghanistan/Intro

At a glance

Did you know

Appam

  • ...that the state of Punjab ( meaning land of five rivers) gets its name from the fact that five tributaries of the river Indus - Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej - run through the state?

Selected Biography

Abdus Salam in 1987

Mohammad Abdus Salam NI, SPk, KBE (/sæˈlæm/; Punjabi, Urdu: عبد السلام‎, pronounced [əbd̪ʊs səlaːm]; 29 January 1926 – 21 November 1996), was a Pakistani theoretical physicist. He shared the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics with Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg for his contribution to the electroweak unification theory. He was the first Pakistani to receive a Nobel Prize in science and the second from an Islamic country to receive any Nobel Prize (after Anwar Sadat of Egypt).

Salam was science advisor to the Ministry of Science and Technology in Pakistan from 1960 to 1974, a position from which he was supposed to play a major and influential role in the development of the country's science infrastructure. Salam contributed to developments in theoretical and particle physics. He was the founding director of the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO), and responsible for the establishment of the Theoretical Physics Group (TPG) in the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). As Science Advisor, Salam played a role in Pakistan's development of the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and may have contributed as well to development of atomic bomb project of Pakistan in 1972; for this, he is viewed as the "scientific father" of this programme. In 1974, Abdus Salam departed from his country, in protest, after the Parliament of Pakistan passed unanimously a parliamentary bill declaring members of the Ahmadiyya movement to which Salam belonged non-Muslims. In 1998, following the country's nuclear tests, the Government of Pakistan issued a commemorative stamp, as a part of "Scientists of Pakistan", to honour the services of Salam.

Salam's notable achievements include the Pati–Salam model, magnetic photon, vector meson, Grand Unified Theory, work on supersymmetry and, most importantly, electroweak theory, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize. Salam made a major contribution in quantum field theory and in the advancement of Mathematics at Imperial College London. With his student, Riazuddin, Salam made important contributions to the modern theory on neutrinos, neutron stars and black holes, as well as the work on modernising the quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. As a teacher and science promoter, Salam is remembered as a founder and scientific father of mathematical and theoretical physics in Pakistan during his term as the chief scientific advisor to the president. Salam heavily contributed to the rise of Pakistani physics to the physics community in the world. Even until shortly before his death, Salam continued to contribute to physics, and to advocate for the development of science in Third-World countries. (More...)

Wikipedia in South Asian Languages

عربى (Arabic) • অসমিয়া (Assamese) • भोजपुरी (Bhojpuri) • বাংলা (Bengali) • ইমার ঠার/বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী (Bishnupriya Manipuri) • މަހަލް (Dhivehi) • ગુજરાતી (Gujarati) • हिन्दी (Hindi) • ಕನ್ನಡ (Kannada) • کٲشُر (Kashmiri) • मैथिली (Maithili) • മലയാളം (Malayalam) • मराठी (Marathi) • नेपाली (Nepali) • ଓଡ଼ିଆ (Odia) • پښتو (Pashto) • فارسی (Persian) • ਪੰਜਾਬੀ (Punjabi) • संस्कृत (Sanskrit) • سنڌي (Sindhi) • සිංහල (Sinhala) • தமிழ் (Tamil) • తెలుగు (Telugu) • پنجابی (Western Punjabi) • اردو (Urdu)

Selected Destination

Clock Tower, Faisalabad

Faisalabad (Urdu: فیصل آباد‎; English: /fɑːɪsɑːlˌbɑːd/; Lyallpur until 1979) is the third-most-populous city in Pakistan, and the second-largest in the eastern province of Punjab. Historically one of the first planned cities within British India, it has long since developed into a cosmopolitan metropolis. Faisalabad was restructured into city district status; a devolution promulgated by the 2001 local government ordinance (LGO). The total area of Faisalabad District is 5,856 km2 (2,261 sq mi) while the area controlled by the Faisalabad Development Authority (FDA) is 1,280 km2 (490 sq mi). Faisalabad has grown to become a major industrial and distribution centre because of its central location in the region and connecting roads, rails, and air transportation. It has been referred to as the "Manchester of Pakistan". Faisalabad contributes over 20 percent of Punjab's GDP, and has an average annual GDP of $20.5 billion. Agriculture and industry remain its hallmark.

The surrounding countryside, irrigated by the lower Chenab River, produces cotton, wheat, sugarcane, maize, vegetables and fruits. The city is an industrial centre with major railway repair yards, engineering works, and mills that process sugar, flour, and oil seed. Faisalabad is a major producer of superphosphates, cotton and silk textiles, hosiery, dyes, industrial chemicals, beverages, clothing, pulp and paper, printing, agricultural equipment, and ghee (clarified butter). The Faisalabad Chamber of Commerce and Industry monitors industrial activity in the city and reports their findings to the Federation of Pakistan Chamber of Commerce and Industry and provincial government. The city has a major dry port and international airport.

Faisalabad is home to the University of Agriculture, Government College University as well as the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Beaconhouse School System, Divisional Public School Faisalabad and National Textile University. The city has its own cricket team, Faisalabad Wolves, which is based at the Iqbal Stadium. There are several other sports teams that compete internationally, including hockey and snooker as well as other sporting events. (More...)

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