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Portal:Robotics

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Introduction

The Shadow robot hand system

Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science, and others. Robotics deals with the design, construction, operation, and use of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing.

These technologies are used to develop machines that can substitute for humans and replicate human actions. Robots can be used in any situation and for any purpose, but today many are used in dangerous environments (including bomb detection and deactivation), manufacturing processes, or where humans cannot survive. Robots can take on any form but some are made to resemble humans in appearance. This is said to help in the acceptance of a robot in certain replicative behaviors usually performed by people. Such robots attempt to replicate walking, lifting, speech, cognition, and basically anything a human can do. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature, contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics.

The concept of creating machines that can operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the 20th century. Throughout history, it has been frequently assumed that robots will one day be able to mimic human behavior and manage tasks in a human-like fashion. Today, robotics is a rapidly growing field, as technological advances continue; researching, designing, and building new robots serve various practical purposes, whether domestically, commercially, or militarily. Many robots are built to do jobs that are hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, finding survivors in unstable ruins, and exploring mines and shipwrecks. Robotics is also used in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) as a teaching aid.

Robotics is a branch of engineering that involves the conception, design, manufacture, and operation of robots. This field overlaps with electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, mechatronics, nanotechnology and bioengineering.

Science-fiction author Isaac Asimov is often given credit for being the first person to use the term robotics in a short story composed in the 1940s. In the story, Asimov suggested three principles to guide the behavior of robots and smart machines. Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics, as they are called, have survived to the present:[dubious ]

  1. Robots must never harm human beings.
  2. Robots must follow instructions from humans without violating rule 1.
  3. Robots must protect themselves without violating the other rules.

Selected robot

STS-114 robot arm extension.jpg

The Mobile Servicing System or Canadarm2 is a robotic system and associated equipment on the International Space Station that plays a key role in station assembly and maintenance: moving equipment and supplies around the station, supporting astronauts working in space, and servicing instruments and other payloads attached to the space station. The MSS was designed and manufactured by MDA Space Missions for the Canadian Space Agency's contribution to the International Space Station. Launched on STS-100 in April 2001, this next generation Canadarm is a bigger, better, smarter version of the space shuttle's original robotic arm. Canadarm2 is 17.6 meters (57.7 ft) long when fully extended and has seven motorized joints. It has a mass of 1,800 kilograms (4,000 lb) and a diameter of 35 cm (13¾ in). The arm is capable of handling large payloads of up to 116,000 kg (256,000 lb) and assisting with docking the space shuttle.

Canadarm2 can move end-over-end to reach many parts of the Space Station in an inchworm-like movement, limited only by the number of Power Data Grapple Fixtures (PDGFs) on the station. PDGFs located around the station provide power, data and video to the arm through its Latching End Effectors (LEEs). The arm can also travel the entire length of the space station using the Mobile Base System.

Selected picture

Piezas - LMS.jpg
Credit: es:User:Superzerocool
Set of Lego Mindstorms.

Topics

Concepts: AI - Automation - Behavior - Calibration - Control - Cybernetics - Human interaction - Kits -Locomotion - Mapping - Mechatronics - Microbotics - Nanorobotics - Neural network - Odometry - Pathfinding - Servomechanism - Software - Vision
Fields: AUVs - Androids - BEAM robotics - Bionics - Cyborgs - Domestic - Gynoids - Industrial - Military - Surgical - Swarm - Sociorobotics - Telerobotics - UAVs
Robots: AIBO - ASIMO - Atlas (robot) - Boeing X-50 - KHR-1 - Lego Mindstorms - Leonardo's robot - Mars Rover - Mecha -RQ-4_Global_Hawk - MQ-1 Predator - nEUROn - QRIO - SIGMO - TOPIO - Wakamaru - X-47 Pegasus
People and organizations: Roboticists - International Federation of Robotics (IFR) - Robotics Institute - FIRST
Fiction: Bender - Bishop - Blade Runner - C-3PO - Johnny 5 - Marvin - Metropolis - R2-D2 - R.U.R. - The Matrix - The Terminator - Three Laws of Robotics - Transformers - Wall-e
Competitions, expos and trials: BattleBots - DARPA - ELROB - Botball - IARC - RoboCup - Robotica
Lists: Autobots - Robot Hall of Fame - Robotics topics - Robots from Futurama - Star Wars droids - UAVs

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Selected article

An industrial robot is officially defined by ISO as an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes. The field of industrial robotics may be more practically defined as the study, design and use of robot systems for manufacturing. Typical applications of industrial robots include welding, painting, ironing, assembly, pick and place, palletizing, product inspection, and testing, all accomplished with high endurance, speed, and precision.

The most commonly used robot configurations for industrial automation, include articulated robots, SCARA robots and gantry robots. In the context of general robotics, most types of industrial robots would fall into the category of robot arms.

News

August 2012

6th

  • Touchdown! 05:32 UTC, though with the delay touchdown was actually at 05:18 UTC
  • 500m, rockets working, 40m altitude, skyframe started...
  • Parachute has opened, on finals, 6.5 km height ...
  • The MSL has separated and has started its entry to Mars. UHF feed is established, and data processed from Odyssey, with 11G entry load. More ...

2nd

  • Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) begins final testing for landing Curiosity on Mars, planned for 5 August. If any trajectory corrections are necessary, these will take place later today. More ...
  • The US Navy announces that one of its MQ-8B Fire Scout helicopter UAV's has chased pirates off the Somali coast. The USS Klakring has four of the UAVs onboard, returning the series of helicopters to operational status after a " pause" following some technical issues. More ...
  • A robot that can land the right way up like a cat. The University of Pennsylvania reveal a paper on their self-righting robot. More ...

1st

  • A 13' 9000lb robot which can auto-track targets and shoot them with it's gatling guns or 6 shot launcher when the driver smiles? More ...
  • Willow Garage's Personal Robot 2 (PR2) aims to help people in various home-based tasks and is customisable for specific customers and their needs. There has been previous footage of the robot folding towels which became popular in the internet. More ...
  • The US Navy attempts to teach a robot plane, the X-47B UCAS (Unmanned Combat Air System), to take-off and land on an aircraft carrier. More ...


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