Portal:Quebec City

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Quebec City

Quebec (/kwˈbɛk/ or /kəˈbɛk/; French: Québec [keˈbɛk]), also Quebec City (French: Ville de Québec), is the capital of the province of Quebec, Canada. It is located within the Capitale-Nationale region. It is the second most populous city in Quebec  – after Montreal, about 233 kilometres (145 mi) to the southwest. As of the 2006 Canadian Census, the city has a population of 491,142, and the metropolitan area has a population of 715,515.

The narrowing of the Saint Lawrence River approximate to Quebec City and Lévis, on the opposite bank, provided the name given to the city, Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows". Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, Quebec City is one of the oldest cities in North America. The ramparts surrounding Old Quebec (Vieux-Québec) are the only remaining fortified city walls that still exist in the Americas north of Mexico, and were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the 'Historic District of Old Québec'.

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The Montmorency Falls (French: Chute Montmorency) are a large waterfall on the Montmorency River in Quebec, Canada. The falls are located on the boundary between the borough of Beauport, Quebec City, and Boischatel, about 12 km from the heart of old Quebec City. The area surrounding the falls is protected within the Montmorency Falls Park (French: Parc de la Chute-Montmorency).

The falls, at 84 meters (275 ft) high, (and 150 feet wide) are the highest in the province of Quebec and 30 m (98 ft) higher than Niagara Falls. The basin at the foot of the falls is 17 m (56 ft) deep. The falls are at the mouth of the Montmorency River where it drops over the cliff shore into the Saint Lawrence River, opposite the western end of the Île d'Orleans. The falls were given this name in 1613 by Samuel de Champlain. He named them in honour of Henri II, duc de Montmorency, who served as viceroy of New France from 1620 until 1625.

There are staircases that allow visitors to view the falls from several different perspectives. A suspension bridge over the crest of falls provides access to both sides of the park as well as a spectacular view. There is also an aerial tram (Funitel) that carries passengers between the base and the top of the falls. In the summer the park hosts an international fireworks competition with the falls as a backdrop.

The remnants of earthen forts built by General Wolfe are located in the eastern portion of the park. They were constructed in 1759. The landings below Quebec City were repulsed by General Montcalm at Montmorency Falls, costing the British 440 men. Ultimately a successful assault was launched when Wolfe made a surprise attack by climbing the cliffs below the Plains of Abraham.

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Samuel de Champlain (c. 1567 or 1580 – December 25, 1635; French pronunciation: ​[samɥɛl də ʃɑ̃plɛ̃]), "The Father of New France", was a French navigator, cartographer, draughtsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat and chronicler, who founded Quebec City on July 3, 1608.

Born into a family of master mariners, Champlain, while still a young man, began exploring North America in 1603 under the guidance of François Gravé Du Pont. From 1604-1607, Champlain participated in the exploration and settlement of Acadia, then, in 1608, established the French settlement that is now Quebec City. Champlain was the first European to explore and describe the Great Lakes, and published maps of his journeys and accounts of what he learned from the natives and the French living among the Natives. He formed relationships with local Montagnais and Innu and later with others further west (Ottawa River, Lake Nipissing, or Georgian Bay), with Algonquin and with Huron Wendat, and agreed to provide assistance in their wars against the Iroquois.

In 1620, Louis XIII ordered Champlain to cease exploration, return to Quebec, and devote himself to the administration of the country. In every way but formal title, Samuel de Champlain served as Governor of New France, a title that may have been formally unavailable to him due to his non-noble status. He established trading companies that sent goods, primarily fur, to France, and oversaw the growth of New France in the St. Lawrence River valley until his death in 1635.

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