Portal:Punjab

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The Punjab (/pʌnˈɑːb/ (About this sound listen), /-ˈæb/, /ˈpʌnɑːb/, /-æb/), also spelled Panjab, panj-āb, land of "five rivers" (Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi)), is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India. Not being a political unit, the boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts.

The Punjab region has been inhabited by Indus Valley Civilisation, Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-Scythians and has seen numerous invasions by the Persians, Greeks, Kushans, Ghaznavids, Timurids, Mughals, Afghans, British and others. The foreign invaders mainly targeted the most productive central region of the Punjab known as the Majha region, which is also the bedrock of Panjabi culture and traditions. The people of the Punjab today are called Punjabis and their principal language is called Punjabi. The main religions of the Punjab region are Islam, Sikhism and Hinduism. Other religious groups are Christianity, Jainism and Buddhism.

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Night view of the Harmandir Sahib.
Amritsar (Punjabi: ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤਸਰ), historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in north-western part in Punjab and the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district located in the Majha region of the state of eastern Punjab.

According to the 2011 census, the population of Amritsar was 1,132,761. The city is situated 217 km (135 mi) northwest of state capital Chandigarh. It is near Pakistan, with the Wagah Border being only 28 km (17.4 mi) away. The nearest city is Lahore, the second largest city in Pakistan, located 50 km (31.1 mi) to the west.

Amritsar is home to the Harmandir Sahib (commonly known as the Golden Temple), the spiritual and cultural centre for the Sikh religion. This important Sikh shrine attracts more visitors than the Taj Mahal with more than 100,000 visitors on weekdays alone and is the most popular destination for the Punjabi diaspora. The city also houses the Akal Takht, the highest seat of earthly authority of the Khalsa, and the committee responsible for the upkeep of Gurdwaras.

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portrait of Harjit Sajjan
Mohammad Abdus Salam NI, SPk, KBE (Punjabi, Urdu: محمد عبد السلام‎; 29 January 1926 – 21 November 1996), was a Pakistani theoretical physicist. A major figure in 20th century theoretical physics, he shared the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics with Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg for his contribution to the electroweak unification theory. He was the first Pakistani and first Muslim to receive a Nobel Prize in science and the second from an Islamic country to receive any Nobel Prize (after Anwar Sadat of Egypt).

Salam was a top level science advisor to the Government of Pakistan from 1960 to 1974, a position from which he played a major and influential role in the development of the country's science infrastructure. Salam was responsible not only for contributing to major developments in theoretical and particle physics, but also for promoting the broadening and deepening of high calibre scientific research in his country.

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A coin of the Scythian king Azes.

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