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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Panorama of Kraków, former capital of Poland

Welcome to the Poland Portal
Witaj w Portalu o Polsce

Coat of arms of Poland
Map of Poland

Poland is a country in Central Europe, bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast to the north. It is an ancient nation whose history as a state began near the middle of the 10th century. Its golden age occurred in the 16th century when it united with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to form the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. During the following century, the strengthening of the gentry and internal disorders weakened the nation. In a series of agreements in the late 18th century, Russia, Prussia and Austria partitioned Poland amongst themselves. It regained independence as the Second Polish Republic in the aftermath of World War I only to lose it again when it was occupied by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. The nation lost over six million citizens in the war, following which it emerged as the communist People's Republic of Poland under strong Soviet influence within the Eastern Bloc. A westward border shift followed by forced population transfers after the war turned a once multiethnic country into a mostly homogeneous nation state. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union called Solidarity (Solidarność) that over time became a political force which by 1990 had swept parliamentary elections and the presidency. A shock therapy program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe. With its transformation to a democratic, market-oriented country completed, Poland is an increasingly active member of NATO and the European Union.

From Polish history

Soviet military parade in Lviv, 1939
The Soviet invasion of Poland was a military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939, during the early stages of World War II, sixteen days after the beginning of the Nazi German attack on Poland. It ended in a decisive victory for the Soviet Union's Red Army. The Soviets acted on the basis of their alliance with Nazi Germany. On 1 September, the Germans invaded Poland from the west; and on 17 September, the Soviet Red Army invaded Poland from the east. The Red Army quickly achieved its targets, vastly outnumbering Polish resistance, already reeling from the German blows. The Soviet government annexed half of the Polish territory now under its control and in November declared that the 13.5 million Polish citizens who lived there were now Soviet citizens. The Soviets quelled opposition by arrests, deportations and executions.

Selected picture

The only known photograph of Frédéric Chopin

The only known photograph of Frédéric Chopin is believed to have been taken in 1849, during the degenerative stages of his tuberculosis, shortly before his death. Chopin, a Polish-French pianist and composer of the Romantic era, is widely regarded as one of the most famous, influential, admired and prolific composers for the piano. Traditional Polish music was an important source of his inspiration and is reflected in his polonaises, mazurkas and other works.

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From Wikipedia's new or recently improved articles about Poland:

Fire of Kraków

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Selected biography

Emilia Plater
Emilia Plater (1806–1831) was a Polish–Lithuanian noblewoman and revolutionary. Born in Vilnius, then in the Russian Empire, and brought up in Polish patriotic tradition, she fought in the November Uprising, during which she raised a small unit, participated in several engagements, and received the rank of a captain in the Polish-Lithuanian insurgent forces. Near the end of the uprising, she fell ill and died. Although she did not participate in any major engagements, her story became widely publicized. She is considered a national hero in Poland, Lithuania and Belarus, venerated by a number of Polish artists as a representative of women fighting for the Polish cause.

Selected location

Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Masovia in Płock

Płock is a town on the Vistula River in the western part of the Masovian Voivodeship. During the reigns of Vladislaus Herman and Boleslaus the Wrymouth in the 10th–11th centuries, Płock was briefly Poland's capital city, and later served as one of the seats of the dukes of Masovia. The town has two cathedrals: the Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Masovia (pictured) where Vladislaus and Boleslaus are buried, and the Temple of Mercy and Charity, the principal seat of the Mariavite Church, a native Polish branch of Christianity. Płock is home to Poland's largest oil refinery, owned by PKN Orlen and served by the Druzhba ("Friendship") pipeline linking Russia with Germany.

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Poland now

Recent events

Anita Włodarczyk and Malwina Kopron celebrating at the 2017 World Championships in Athletics

Holidays and observances in November 2017
(statutory public holidays in bold)

Grave lanterns lit on All Saints' Day

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Government and politics




Related portals


Poland at Wikiquote
Poland at Commons
Images and other media
Poland at Wikisource
Source texts
Poland at Wikivoyage
Travel guide

Wikipedia in the languages of Poland

Kaszëbskô Wikipedijô
Kashubian Wikipedia
Polska Wikipedia
Polish Wikipedia
Ślůnsko Wikipedyjo
Silesian Wikipedia
Wymysiöeryś Wikipedyj
Vilamovian Wikipedia Incubator


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