Portal:Pipe organ

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Introduction

The pipe organ in Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois, Paris

The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air (called wind) through the organ pipes selected via a keyboard. Because each pipe produces a single pitch, the pipes are provided in sets called ranks, each of which has a common timbre and volume throughout the keyboard compass. Most organs have multiple ranks of pipes of differing timbre, pitch, and volume that the player can employ singly or in combination through the use of controls called stops.

A pipe organ has one or more keyboards (called manuals) played by the hands, and a pedalboard played by the feet; each keyboard has its own group of stops. The keyboard(s), pedalboard, and stops are housed in the organ's console. The organ's continuous supply of wind allows it to sustain notes for as long as the corresponding keys are pressed, unlike the piano and harpsichord whose sound begins to dissipate immediately after a key is depressed. The smallest portable pipe organs may have only one or two dozen pipes and one manual; the largest may have over 33,000 pipes and seven manuals. A list of some of the most notable and largest pipe organs in the world can be viewed at List of pipe organs.

Selected article

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The International Organ Festival (IOF) is a biennial music festival and organ competition held in St Albans, England since 1963. Originally held annually, it was changed to every two years in 1965 due to the complexity of organising the increasingly ambitious programme. The festival is run mainly by volunteers.

The festival was conceived by Peter Hurford to celebrate the building of the new organ in St Albans Cathedral by Harrison & Harrison. The main competitions are still conducted on this instrument, its eclectic style and modern electropneumatic action now complemented by another self-contained tracker action instrument which The International Organ Festival Society, the charity which runs the Festival, has had built for its own use and sited at St Saviour's Church, St Albans. This was built by Peter Collins in the style of, and in homage to, the early 18th century German organ builder Andreas Silbermann.

Selected image

The organ in Roskilde Cathedral
Credit:

The organ in Roskilde Cathedral, Copenhagen is an elaborate baroque instrument first built in 1554 by the Dutch organ builder Herman Raphaelis; the façade of the Rückpositiv and the parapet of the gallery stem from this instrument. A thorough rebuild was completed in 1654 which included the installation of the present main façade. The organ was rebuilt to this specification by Marcusson & Son in 1990.

Did you know...

  • ... that the recently restored organ of St Botolph's Aldgate has been described as the oldest church organ in the United Kingdom. Although there are older pipes and cases, this is the oldest collection of pipes in their original positions on their original wind chests.
  • ...that the Kotzschmar Memorial Organ was the second-largest pipe organ in the United States when it was built in 1911, and that it is one of only two "municipal organs" remaining in the U.S. today?

Notable pipe organs

Selected biography

César Franck seated at the organ
César Franck (December 10, 1822 – November 8, 1890)—a composer, organist and music teacher of Belgian origin who lived in France—was one of the great figures in classical music in the second half of the 19th century.

In 1858, he became organist at the recently-consecrated basilica of Sainte Clotilde. His first set of organ compositions, however, was not published until 1868, when he was 46 years old, though it contains one of his finest organ pieces, the Grande Pièce Symphonique. From 1872 to his death he was Professor of Organ at the Paris Conservatoire where his pupils included Vincent d'Indy, Ernest Chausson, Louis Vierne, and Henri Duparc. As an organist he was particularly noted for his skill in improvisation, and it is on the basis of only twelve major organ works that Franck is by many considered the greatest organ composer after J.S. Bach. His works were some of the finest organ pieces to come from France in over a century, and laid the groundwork for the French symphonic organ style. The 25-minute "Grande Pièce Symphonique" paved the way for the organ symphonies of Widor, Louis Vierne, and Marcel Dupré.

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Quotes

  • Oh! there is an organ playing in the street - a waltz too! I must leave off to listen. (Lord Byron)

Topics

Types of organ: Barrel organ · Calliope · Extension organ · Fairground organ · Mechanical organ · Orchestrion · Pipe organ · Symphonic organ · Theatre organ · Water organ ·

Components: Console · Couplers · Expression pedal · Manuals · Pedalboard · Pipes · Wind system ·

Organ stops:  Bourdon · Celeste · Diapason · En chamade · String stop · Gedackt · Vox Humana · Zimbelstern · (more...) ·

Organ builders: Aeolian-Skinner · Casavant Frères · Cavaillé–Coll · Peter Collins · Harrison & Harrison · Klais · Fratelli Ruffatti · Gottfried Silbermann · 'Father' Willis · (more...)

Organists: Johann Sebastian Bach · Edward Bairstow · Claus Bantzer · Adrian Batten · Jennifer Bate · E. Power Biggs · John Birch · Léon Boëllmann · Georg Böhm · David Briggs · Ernest Bullock · Dieterich Buxtehude · Stephen Cleobury · Pierre Cochereau · E. T. Cook · Carlo Curley · Marcel Dupré · Stephen Farr · Virgil Fox · César Franck · Jean Guillou · Naji Hakim · Herbert Howells · Peter Hurford · Francis Jackson · Piet Kee · Jean Langlais · Olivier Latry · Simon Lindley · Richard Marlow · T. Tertius Noble · Nigel Ogden · Walter Parratt · Simon Preston · Noel Rawsthorne · Barry Rose · David Sanger · Albert Schweitzer · John Scott · John Scott–Whiteley · Frederick Swan · Louis Thiry · Thomas Trotter · Gillian Weir · David Willcocks · Willian Lloyd Webber ·

Composers: Jehan Alain · Johann Sebastian Bach · Léon Boëllmann · Johannes Brahms · Dieterich Buxtehude · François Couperin · Marcel Dupré · Maurice Duruflé · César Franck · Eugène Gigout · Herbert Howells · Jean Langlais · Franz Liszt · Felix Mendelssohn · Olivier Messiaen · Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart · Johann Pachelbel · Max Reger · Camille Saint-Saëns · Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck · Louis Vierne · William Lloyd Webber · Charles–Marie Widor ·

Things you can do

  1. Get Pipe organ nearer to WP:FA status by adding references, and discuss moving some content to subpages (see also talk).
  2. Contribute to the clean up of organ pipe, flue pipe etc., see Mini-projects
  3. Find places to link to organ console
  4. Copy edit organ stop
  5. Create article about the various types of windchest
  6. Add {{organist-stub}} to biographical articles either instead of, or additional to the {{Keyboardist-stub}} that currently exists.
  7. Add Category:Electronic organ manufacturing companies to List of organ builders.

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