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Portal:Photography

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Introduction

Lens and mounting of a large-format camera

Photography is the art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film. It is employed in many fields of science, manufacturing (e.g., photolithography), and business, as well as its more direct uses for art, film and video production, recreational purposes, hobby, and mass communication.

Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing. The result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, which is later chemically "developed" into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.

Selected article

Zoom lens
A zoom lens is a mechanical assembly of lens elements with the ability to vary its focal length, as opposed to a prime lens which has a fixed focal length. They are commonly used with still, video, and motion picture cameras, some binoculars and telescopes, and other optical instruments.

The first real zoom lens, which retained near-sharp focus while the effective focal length of the lens assembly was changed, was patented in 1902 by Clile. C. Allen (U.S. Patent 696,788). The first industrial production was the Bell & Howell Cooke "Varo" 40-120mm Lens for 35mm movie cameras introduced in 1932. The Kilfitt 36-82mm/2.8 Zoomar introduced in 1959 was the first zoom lens in regular production for still 35mm photography.

Since then, advances in optical design, particularly the use of computers for optical ray tracing, has made the design and construction of zoom lenses much easier, and they are now used widely in professional and amateur photography.

Selected biography

Jacob Riis
Jacob August Riis (May 3, 1849 - May 26, 1914), a Danish-American muckraker journalist, photographer, and social reformer, was born in Ribe, Denmark. He is known for his dedication to using his photographic and journalistic talents to help the less fortunate in New York City, which was the subject of most of his prolific writings and photographic essays. As one of the first photographers to use flash, he is considered a pioneer in photography. [1]

Riis held various jobs before he landed a position as a police reporter in 1873 with the New York Evening Sun newspaper. In 1874, he joined the news bureau of the Brooklyn News. In 1877 he served as police reporter, this time for the New York Tribune. During these stints as a police reporter, Riis worked the most crime-ridden and impoverished slums of the city.[2] Through his own experiences in the poor houses, and witnessing the conditions of the poor in the city slums, he decided to make a difference for those who had no voice.[1] He was one of the first Americans to use flash powder, allowing his documentation of New York City slums to penetrate the dark of night, and helping him capture the hardships faced by the poor and criminal along his police beats, especially on the notorious Mulberry Street. In 1889, Scribner's Magazine published Riis's photographic essay on city life, which Riis later expanded to create his magnum opus How the Other Half Lives.[3] This work was directly responsible for convincing then-Commissioner of Police Theodore Roosevelt to close the police-run poor houses in which Riis suffered during his first months as an American. After reading it, Roosevelt was so deeply moved by Riis's sense of justice that he met Riis and befriended him for life, calling him "the best American I ever knew."[3] Roosevelt himself coined the term "muckraking journalism", of which Riis is a recognized protagonist, in 1906.[2]

Did you know

  • ...that the inventors of Kodachrome, Leopold Mannes and Leopold Godowsky, Jr. were both accomplished musicians?

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Genres of photography Aerial photography | Astrophotography | Aviation photography | Candid photography | Chronophotography | Color photography | Commercial photography | Computational photography (artistic) | Digiscoping | Fashion photography | Fine art photography | Glamour photography | Infrared photography | Kirlian photography | Kite aerial photography | Macro photography | Nature photography | New Topography | Night photography | Non-nude photography | Panoramic photography | Portrait photography | Post-mortem photography | Rollout photography | Secret photography | Still life photography | Stock photography | Straight photography | Street photography | Strip aerial photography | Subminiature photography | Ultraviolet photography | Underwater photography | Vernacular photography | War photography | Wedding photography | Wildlife photography
Photographic techniques Afocal photography | Airbrush | Background light | Backlighting (lighting design) | Bracketing | Burned (image) | Chemography | Color correction | Composograph | Contre-jour | Deep focus | Double exposure | Dutch angle | Exposure compensation | Fill flash | Fill light | Framing | Hand-colouring | Harris Shutter | High dynamic range imaging | High-key lighting | Infinity cove | Kallitype | Key light | Kite aerial photography | Lenticular printing | Light painting | Manual focus | Multiple exposure | Perspective correction | Photo manipulation | Photogram | Photographic print toning | Push printing | Push processing | Rephotography | Rule of thirds | Sandwich printing | Shallow focus | Simplicity | Slit-scan photography | Stereoscopy | Stopping down | Sunny 16 rule | Three-point lighting | Tinted photograph | Zone System
Photographers Fictional photographers | Magnum photographers | Photographers by nationality | Photojournalists | Pioneers of photography | Photographic studios | Photographers by subject | Photographers who committed suicide | Stock photographers | Photographer stubs | Women photographers

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  1. ^ a b James Davidson and Mark Lytle, “The Mirror with a Memory,” After the Fact: The Art of Historical Detection (New York: McGraw Hill, 2000).
  2. ^ a b Len Bernstein, Photographica World: The Journal of the Photographic Collectors Club in Great Britain (no. 98, April, 2001; available online here).
  3. ^ a b Teaching History Online: "Jacob Riis".
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