Portal:Ottoman Empire

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Introduction

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The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Ottoman Turkish: دولت عليه عثمانیه‎, Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.

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Ottoman Imperial Standard

The sultans of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Osmanlı padişahları), made up solely of the members of the Ottoman dynasty (House of Osman), ruled over the transcontinental empire from its inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922. At its height, the Ottoman Empire spanned from Hungary in the north to Somalia in the south, and from Algeria in the west to Iran in the east. Administered at first from the city of Bursa, the empire's capital was moved to Edirne in 1366 and then to Constantinople (currently known as Istanbul) in 1453 following its conquest by Mehmed II from the Byzantine Empire.

The Ottoman Empire's early years have been the subject of varying narratives due to the difficulty of discerning fact from legend; nevertheless, most modern scholars agree that the empire came into existence around 1299 and that its first ruler (and the namesake of the Empire) was Osman I Khan (leader) of the Kayı tribe of the Oghuz Turks. The eponymous Ottoman dynasty he founded endured for six centuries through the reigns of 36 sultans. The Ottoman Empire disappeared as a result of the defeat of the Central Powers with whom it had allied itself during World War I. The partitioning of the Empire by the victorious Allies and the ensuing Turkish War of Independence led to the abolition of the sultanate in 1922 and the birth of the modern Republic of Turkey in 1923.

Selected biography

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Osman Nuri Pasha (Ottoman Turkish: عثمان نوری پاشا‎‎; 1832 – 5 April 1900), also known as Gazi Osman Pasha, was an Ottoman field marshal and the hero of the Siege of Plevna in 1877. Although unsuccessful in defending the city, he was awarded the title Gazi ("warrior" or "veteran") as a result of that siege. In addition to his Adjutancy title, Osman received the Order of the Medjidie and the Imtiyaz Medal for his services to the Empire.

Osman Nuri was born into the prominent Yağcıoğulları family of the city of Tokat in Central Anatolia. His father was a civil worker who, soon after Osman's birth, was appointed to a position in the Ottoman capital, so the family moved to İstanbul. Osman attended the Beşiktaş Military High School and then graduated from the Ottoman Military College in 1852 as a lieutenant, entering the cavalry arm at the beginning of the Crimean War.

Did you know...

  • Fatih Sultan Mehmet was king at 12 years old.
  • The Ottoman Empire welcomed more than 150 000 jewish refugees who got expelled from Spain in 1492.
  • He continued his reign of the Ottoman Empire 624 years.

New articles

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'Last Ottoman' dies at age 97 (Friday, September 25, 2009)
'Last Ottoman' dies, aged 91 (Thursday, April 5, 2012)

External links and resources

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State-based archives

  • Ottoman State Archives Republic of Turkey Prime Ministry Undersecretariat of Treasury (in English)
  • General Directorate of State Archives of the Republic of Turkey (in English) (in French) (in Arabic)
  • General Directorate Of State Archives (in English) (in Turkish)
  • Ottoman Archives (in English)
  • Turkish Historical Society (in English)
  • Ottoman History Libraries and Archives (BU) (in English)
  • OTAP Project Staff, Project of Ottoman Empire (in English)
  • Ottoman Archives Fund (in English)

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Blue Mosque Courtyard Dusk Wikimedia Commons.jpg
Panoramic view of the courtyard of the Blue Mosque, in Istanbul. The courtyard has a square shape, but the mercator projection necessary to squeeze all the field of view into the frame bends the horizontal lines. Panorama created with Hugin.

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