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Number theory
Number theory (or arithmetic or higher arithmetic in older usage), is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers. German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) said, "Mathematics is the queen of the sciences - and number theory is the queen of mathematics." Number theorists study prime numbers as well as the properties of objects made out of integers (e.g., rational numbers) or defined as generalizations of the integers (e.g., algebraic integers).
Integers can be considered either in themselves or as solutions to equations (Diophantine geometry). Questions in number theory are often best understood through the study of analytical objects (e.g., the Riemann zeta function) that encode properties of the integers, primes or other number-theoretic objects in some fashion (analytic number theory). One may also study real numbers in relation to rational numbers, e.g., as approximated by the latter (Diophantine approximation).
The older term for number theory is arithmetic. By the early twentieth century, it had been superseded by "number theory". (The word "arithmetic" is used by the general public to mean "elementary calculations"; it has also acquired other meanings in mathematical logic, as in Peano arithmetic, and computer science, as in floating point arithmetic.) The use of the term arithmetic for number theory regained some ground in the second half of the 20th century, arguably in part due to French influence. In particular, arithmetical is preferred as an adjective to number-theoretic.
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In number theory, Sylvester's sequence is a sequence of integers in which each member of the sequence is the product of the previous members, plus one. Sylvester's sequence is named after James Joseph Sylvester, who first investigated it in 1880.
Its values grow doubly exponentially, and the sum of its reciprocals forms a series of unit fractions that converges to 1 more rapidly than any other series of unit fractions with the same sum. The recurrence by which it is defined allows the numbers in the sequence to be factored more easily than other numbers of the same magnitude, but, due to the rapid growth of the sequence, complete prime factorizations are known only for a few of its members. Values derived from this sequence have also been used to construct finite Egyptian fraction representations of 1, Sasakian Einstein manifolds, and hard instances for online algorithms.
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Did you know?
- ...that every positive integer can be expressed as the sum of four squares of integers?
- ...that it is impossible to separate any power higher than the second into two like powers?
- ...that only 35 even numbers have been identified which are not the sum of a pair of Twin primes?
- ...that 16 is the only integer that satisfies x^y=y^x for distinct positive integers x and y, being 4^2 = 2^4
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Topics in Number theory
Types of number theory | Numbers | Equations | Arithmetic |
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