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Portal:Norway

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Norway Portal
Norge Portal

Flag Arms of Norway.svg
Location of Norway within Europe

Norway /ˈnɔːrw/ (About this sound listen) (Norwegian: About this sound Norge (Bokmål) or About this sound Noreg (Nynorsk)), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Scandinavian unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and the subantarctic Bouvet Island. The Spitsbergen Treaty (also known as the Svalbard Treaty) of February 9, 1920, recognizes the full and absolute sovereignty of Norway over the arctic archipelago of Spitsbergen (now called Svalbard). Peter I Island is dependent territory (Norwegian: biland) of Norway but is not considered part of the Kingdom. Norway also lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,252 square kilometres (148,747 sq mi) and a population of about 5 million. It is the second least densely populated country in Europe. The majority of the country shares a border to the east with Sweden; its northernmost region is bordered by Finland to the south and Russia to the east; in its south Norway borders the Skagerrak Strait across from Denmark. The capital city of Norway is Oslo. Norway's extensive coastline, facing the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, is home to its famous fjords.

Two centuries of Viking raids tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav Tryggvason in 994. A period of civil war ended in the 13th century when Norway expanded its control overseas to parts of Britain, Ireland, Iceland, and Greenland. Norwegian territorial power peaked in 1265, but competition from the Hanseatic League and the spread of the Black Death weakened the country. In 1380, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by the Third Reich. In 1949, neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a founding member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU. Key domestic issues include immigration and integration of ethnic minorities, maintaining the country's extensive social safety net with an aging population, and preserving economic competitiveness.

Norway is a unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy, with King Harald V as its head of state and Erna Solberg as its prime minister. It is a unitary state with administrative subdivisions on two levels known as counties (fylke) and municipalities (kommuner). The Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Although having rejected European Union membership in two referenda, Norway maintains close ties with the union and its member countries, as well as with the United States. Norway remains one of the biggest financial contributors to the United Nations, and participates with UN forces in international missions, notably in Afghanistan, Kosovo, Sudan and Libya. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the Council of Europe, and the Nordic Council; a member of the European Economic Area, the WTO, and the OECD; and is also a part of Schengen Area.

Norway has extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, minerals, lumber, seafood, fresh water, and hydropower. The country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world. On a per-capita basis, it is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside the Middle East, and the petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. The country maintains a Nordic social benefit model with universal health care, subsidized higher education, and a comprehensive social security system. From 2001 to 2006, and then again from 2009 through 2011, Norway has had the highest human development index ranking in the world. In 2011, Norway also ranked the highest on the Democracy Index.

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Shagrath in 2007
Chrome Division is a heavy metal band from Norway formed in 2004 by Shagrath, the lead vocalist of symphonic black metal band Dimmu Borgir, and Lex Icon, founder of The Kovenant. Although it was not intended as such, it is now considered a side project of Shagrath's, and the current lineup consists of him on rhythm guitar, along with Eddie Guz as the vocalist, Ricky Black on lead guitar, Björn Luna on bass guitar and Tony White on drums. The band plays in the style of bands such as Motörhead, and draws heavily upon imagery from the motorcycling subculture. To date, Chrome Division has released one album, Doomsday Rock 'N' Roll, but the band has signed a three-album deal with Nuclear Blast, and both Shagrath and Luna have promised that there are more to come. Chrome Division also released a music video for the song "Serial Killer" in an attempt to publicise the album, directed by noted Swedish director Patrick Ullaeus.

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Traditional Norwegian lutefisk with potato, bacon, mashed peas.
Credit: Enno

Lutefisk (lutfisk) is a traditional dish of the Nordic countries made from stockfish (air-dried whitefish) and soda lye (lut). Its name literally means "lye fish", owing to the fact that it is made with caustic soda or potash lye.

In the news

Wikinews Norway portal
  • August 30: Lightning strikes dead more than 300 wild reindeer in Norway
  • March 10: Wheelchair curling enters third day at 2014 Winter Paralympics
  • March 10: Ukraine's Lyudmyla Pavlenko wins gold in 2014 Winter Paralympics
  • March 8: Norway beats Czech Republic in sledge hockey overtime win in first match at Winter Paralympics

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Carl Abraham Pihl

Selected biography

General Fleischer's gravestone at Vår Frelsers gravlund
Carl Gustav Fleischer KCB (1883-1942) was a Norwegian general and the first land commander to win a major victory against the Germans in World War II. Fleischer was born in 1883 as the son of a Church of Norway pastor in Trøndelag. His father died while he was very young and Fleischer moved with his mother to grow up in Trondheim. His childhood home was one characterized by Christianity, simplicity and frugality. Motivated by economic uncertainties, Fleischer joined the Norwegian Military Academy and graduated as the second best student in 1905. In 1919-1923 he was the Staff officer of the Norwegian 6th division before becoming Commanding Officer of Infantry Regiment 14 (IR 14) in Mosjøen. While serving in North Norway Fleischer became an avid writer of military manuals and worked continually on developing the Norwegian Defence Forces in line with the special prerequisites caused by the Norwegian nature and society. On January 16, 1939 he was made Major General (generalmajor) and Commanding Officer of the Norwegian 6th division, the position that would lead him to become the first allied general to defeat the Wehrmacht in a head-on land confrontation.

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Sinmara.

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Bodø
Credit: Lars Røed Hansen

Bodø is a city and municipality in the county of Nordland, Norway. Located just north of the Arctic Circle, Bodø is the largest city in Nordland, and the second largest in North Norway.

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Röyksopp in concert
You see, it’s part of the process you go through: the longer the hair and the beard, the more Beaujolais you drink. It’s stage three of the seven stages of song writing.
Svein Berge, member of music group Röyksopp
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Norway
Norway in winter

Counties: AkershusAust-AgderBuskerudFinnmarkHedmarkHordalandMøre og RomsdalNordlandNord-TrøndelagOpplandOsloØstfoldRogalandSogn og FjordaneSør-TrøndelagTelemarkTromsVest-AgderVestfold

Culture: BunadConstitution DayCuisineFarm cultureJulLiteratureMusic

History: Ancient Norwegian property lawsNordic Stone AgeNordic Bronze AgeKomsaFosna-Hensbacka cultureFunnelbeaker cultureHamburg cultureNøstvet and Lihult culturesMaglemosian cultureViking AgeHarald I of NorwayOlav IV of NorwayHaakon I of NorwayOlaf I of NorwayOlaf II of NorwayBattle of StiklestadCanute the GreatMagnus I of NorwayHarald III of NorwayBattle of Stamford BridgeMagnus III of NorwaySigurd I of NorwayMagnus V of NorwaySverre of NorwayHaakon IV of NorwayMagnus VI of NorwayEric II of NorwayKalmar UnionDenmark–NorwayUnion between Sweden and NorwayDissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden in 1905Haakon VII of NorwayOlav V of NorwayHarald V of NorwayOccupation of Norway by Nazi GermanyNorwegian CampaignNorwegian resistance movementLegal purge in Norway after World War IIForeign relations of NorwayMilitary of NorwayNorway and the European Union

Language: ÅÆØBokmålDet Norske Akademi for Sprog og LitteraturDifferences between Norwegian Bokmål and Standard DanishHøgnorskNordic CouncilNordic Language ConventionNoregs MållagNorsk OrdbokNorth Germanic languagesNorwegian alphabetNorwegian dialectsNorwegian Language CouncilNorwegian language conflictNorwegian phonologyNynorskOld NorseRiksmålsforbundetRussenorsk

Politics: ConstitutionCounties (Fylker)ElectionsEuropean Union relationsForeign relationsGovernmentMonarchyMunicipalities (Kommuner)Political partiesPrime MinisterRomantic nationalismSámi ParliamentStorting

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