Portal:New Brunswick

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New Brunswick (French: Nouveau-Brunswick; pronounced [nuvobʁɔnzwik]) is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and is the only constitutionally bilingual province (English and French) in the federation. The provincial capital is Fredericton. Statistics Canada estimates the provincial population in 2009 to be 750,457; a majority are English-speaking, but there is also a large Francophone minority (33%), chiefly of Acadian origin.

The province's name comes from the English and French partial transcription of the city of Braunschweig in northern Germany (and former duchy of the same name), the ancestral home of the Hanoverian King George III of the United Kingdom.

In the 2001 Canadian census, the most commonly reported ethnicities were 193,470 French (26.9%); 165,235 English (23.0%); 135,835 Irish (18.9%); 127,635 Scottish (17.7%); 27,490 German (3.8%); 26,220 Acadians (3.6%); 23,815 "North American Indian" (First Nations) (3.3%); 13,355 Dutch (Netherlands) (1.9%); and 7,620 Welsh (1.1%). It should be noted that 242,220 people (33.7%) identified themselves as simply "Canadian" or "Canadien," while 173,585 (24.1%) also selected another ethnicity—for a total of 415,810 (57.8%) calling themselves Canadian. (Each person could choose more than one ethnicity.)

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New Brunswick is bounded on the north by Quebec's Gaspé Peninsula and Chaleur Bay and on the east by the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and Northumberland Strait. To the south, the narrow Isthmus of Chignecto connects it to peninsular Nova Scotia, most of which is separated from the mainland by the Bay of Fundy. On its west, the province borders the American state of Maine. The boundary with the U.S. was settled during the "Aroostook War" of 1838-39 which was largely instigated by businessman and political activist John Baker. New Brunswick is one of two provinces (the other being Alberta) to border a single U.S. state.

The total land and water area of the province is 72,908 square kilometres. About 80% of the province is forested, with the other 20% consisting of agricultural land and urban areas. The major urban centres lie in the south of the province. The bulk of the arable land is found in the Upper St. John River Valley, with lesser amounts of farmland found in the southeast of the province.

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Cape Enrage is the name given to the southern tip of Barn Marsh Island, an island located in Albert County, New Brunswick, roughly half way along the coastline between the villages of Riverside-Albert and Alma at the eastern entrance to Fundy National Park. Cape Enrage derives its name from the large reef that extends south into Chignecto Bay, which causes the water off the point to become extremely violent, particularly at half tide when the reef is partially exposed and the water is moving quickly. The oldest lighthouse on the New Brunswick mainland, dating from 1847, is located at Cape Enrage.
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Richard Bedford Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett, PC, KC (3 July 1870 – 26 June 1947), was a Canadian politician who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Canada, in office from 1930 to 1935. He led the Conservative Party from 1927 to 1938.

Bennett was born in Hopewell Hill, New Brunswick, and grew up in nearby Hopewell Cape. He studied law at Dalhousie University, graduating in 1893, and in 1897 moved to Calgary to establish a law firm in partnership with James Lougheed. Bennett served in the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories from 1898 to 1905, and later in the Alberta Legislature from 1909 to 1911. He was the inaugural leader of the Alberta Conservative Party from 1905, resigning upon his election to the House of Commons in 1911.


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