Portal:New Brunswick

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New Brunswick (French: Nouveau-Brunswick; Canadian French pronunciation: [nuvobʁɔnzwɪk] (About this soundlisten)) is one of four Atlantic provinces on the east coast of Canada.

The indigenous inhabitants of the land at the time of European colonization were the Mi'kmaq, the Maliseet, and the Passamaquoddy peoples, aligned politically within the Wabanaki Confederacy, many of whom still reside in the area.

Being relatively close to Europe, New Brunswick was among the first places in North America to be explored and settled, starting with the French in the early 1600s, who eventually colonized most of the Maritimes and some of Maine as the colony of Acadia. The area was caught up in the global conflict between the British and French empires, including the 1722–25 Dummer's War against New England. In 1755 what is now New Brunswick was claimed by the British as part of Nova Scotia, to be partitioned off in 1784 following an influx of refugees from the American Revolutionary War. Large groups of English, Scottish, and French people had settled and become the majority population by this time. However, as the Catholic French and indigenous peoples had intermarried heavily, they were essentially a Métis.

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The Acadians (French: Acadiens) are the descendants of the French settlers, and sometimes the Indigenous peoples, of parts of Acadia (French: Acadie) in the northeastern region of North America comprising what is now the Canadian Maritime Provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, Gaspé, in Quebec, and to the Kennebec River in southern Maine.

The history of the Acadians was significantly influenced by the six colonial wars that took place in Acadia during the 17th and 18th century (see the four French and Indian Wars, Father Rale's War and Father Le Loutre's War). Eventually, the last of the colonial wars—the French and Indian War—resulted in the British Expulsion of the Acadians from the region. After the war, many Acadians came out of hiding or returned to Acadia from the British Colonies. Others remained in France and some migrated from there to Louisiana, where they became known as Cajuns, a corruption of the word Acadiens or Acadians. The nineteenth century saw the beginning of the Acadian Renaissance and the publication of Evangeline, which helped galvanize Acadian identity. In the last century Acadians have made achievements in the areas of equal language and cultural rights as a minority group in the Maritime provinces of Canada.


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Fredericton skyline 2006.

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