Before the featured portal process ceased in 2017, this had been designated as a featured portal.

Portal:Napoleonic Wars

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Napoleonic Eagle.svg
Flag of France.svg

• • • Napoleonic Wars • • •

Austerlitz

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition (1805), the Fourth (1806–07), Fifth (1809), Sixth (1813), and the Seventh and final (1815).

Napoleon, upon ascending to First Consul of France in 1799, had inherited a chaotic republic; he subsequently created a state with stable finances, a strong bureaucracy, and a well-trained army. In 1805, Austria and Russia waged war against France. In response, Napoleon defeated the allied Russo-Austrian army at Austerlitz in December 1805, which is considered his greatest victory. At sea, the British severely defeated the joint Franco-Spanish navy in the Battle of Trafalgar on October 1805. This victory secured British control of the seas and preventing the invasion of Britain itself. Prussian concerns about increasing French power led to a resumption of war in October 1806. Napoleon quickly defeated the Prussians, and defeated Russia in June 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. The peace failed, though, as war broke out in 1809, and a new coalition was soon defeated.

Hoping to isolate Britain economically, Napoleon invaded Iberia, declaring his brother Joseph king of Spain in 1808. The Spanish and Portuguese revolted with British support, and, after six years of fighting, expelled the French from Iberia in 1814. Concurrently, Russia, unwilling to bear economic consequences of reduced trade, routinely violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon to launch a massive invasion of Russia in 1812. The resulting campaign ended with the dissolution and withdrawal of the French Grande Armée. Encouraged by the defeat, Prussia, Austria, and Russia began a new campaign against France, decisively defeating Napoleon at Leipzig in October 1813 after several inconclusive engagements. The Allies then invaded France, capturing Paris at the end of March 1814 and forcing Napoleon to abdicate in early April. He was exiled to the island of Elba, and the Bourbons were restored to power. However, Napoleon escaped in February 1815, and reassumed control of France. The Allies responded with the Seventh Coalition, defeating Napoleon permanently at Waterloo in June 1815 and exiling him to St Helena.

The Congress of Vienna redrew the borders of Europe, and brought a lasting peace to the continent. The wars had profound consequences on global history, including the spread of nationalism and liberalism, the rise of the British Empire as the world's foremost power, the appearance of independence movements in Latin America and subsequent collapse of the Spanish Empire, the fundamental reorganisation of German and Italian territories into larger states, and the establishment of radically new methods of conducting warfare.

• • • Selected image • • •

Wellington at Waterloo
Painted by Robert Alexander Hillingford, this artwork depicts the Duke of Wellington leading his troops at the Battle of Waterloo, 18 June 1815.

• • • Selected battle • • •

Battle of Borodino

The Battle of Borodino, fought on September 7, 1812, was the largest and bloodiest single-day action of the French invasion of Russia and all Napoleonic Wars, involving more than 250,000 troops and resulting in at least 70,000 casualties. The French Grande Armée under Emperor Napoleon I attacked the Imperial Russian Army of General Mikhail Kutuzov near the village of Borodino, west of the town of Mozhaysk, and eventually captured the main positions on the battlefield, but failed to destroy the Russian army despite heavy losses. About a third of Napoleon's soldiers were killed or wounded; Russian losses were also heavy, but her casualties could be compensated since large forces of militia were already with the Russian Army and replacement depots which were close by had already been gathering and training troops.

The battle itself ended with the Russian Army out of position. The state of exhaustion of the French forces and lack of information on the Russian Army's condition led Napoleon to remain on the battlefield with his army instead of the forced pursuit that had marked other campaigns that he had conducted in the past. The entirety of Napoleon's Imperial Guard, however, was still available to his disposition and in refusing to implement it he lost his singular chance to destroy the Russian army. The battle at Borodino was a pivotal point in the campaign, as it was the last offensive action fought by Napoleon in Russia. By withdrawing, the Russian army preserved its combat strength, eventually allowing it to force Napoleon out of the country.

Historical reports of the battle differed markedly depending on whether they originated from supporters of the French or Russian sides. Factional fighting between senior officers within each army also led to conflicting accounts and disagreements over the roles of particular individuals.

• • • Selected biography • • •

Duke of Wellington
Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852), was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman, and one of the leading military and political figures of the 19th century. He is often referred to as the "Duke of Wellington", even after his death, when there have been subsequent Dukes of Wellington.

Born in Ireland, he was commissioned an ensign in the British Army in 1787. Serving in Ireland as aide-de-camp to two successive Lords Lieutenant of Ireland he was also elected as a Member of Parliament in the Irish House of Commons. A colonel by 1796, Wellesley saw action in the Netherlands and later in India, where he fought in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War at the Battle of Seringapatam. He was appointed governor of Seringapatam and Mysore in 1799.

Wellesley rose to prominence as a general during the Peninsular campaign of the Napoleonic Wars, and was promoted to the rank of field marshal after leading the allied forces to victory against the French at the Battle of Vitoria in 1813. Following Napoleon's exile in 1814, he served as the ambassador to France and was granted a dukedom. During the Hundred Days in 1815, he commanded the allied army which, with a Prussian army under Blücher, defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo. Wellesley's battle record is exemplary, ultimately participating in some 60 battles throughout his military career.

He was twice prime minister under the Tory party and oversaw the passage of the Catholic Relief Act 1829. He was prime minister from 1828–30 and served briefly in 1834. He was unable to prevent the passage of the Reform Act of 1832 and continued as one of the leading figures in the House of Lords until his retirement. He remained Commander-in-Chief of the British Army until his death.

• • • Selected good articles • • •

• • • Did you know? • • •

Did You Know? ... that after the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805, Napoleon predicted General Michel Ordener would die within five or six years – and although he retired, Ordener died in 1811?

Did You Know? ... that the French stormed the Bagration flèches eight times during the Battle of Borodino in 1812?

Did You Know? ... that Moustache, a French poodle, is said to have been awarded a medal by Marshal Jean Lannes for saving a regimental flag at the Battle of Austerlitz?

• • • Categories • • •

• • • WikiProjects • • •

• • • Related portals • • •

• • • Reading material • • •

• • • Featured articles • • •

Featured articles
Featured article Action of 1 August 1801 Featured article Action of 1 January 1800 Featured article Action of 13 January 1797
Featured article Battle of Albuera Featured article Battle of Austerlitz Featured article Battle of Barrosa
Featured article HMS Bellerophon (1786) Featured article Isaac Brock Featured article USS Chesapeake (1799)
Featured article USS Congress (1799) Featured article USS Constitution Featured article The Disasters of War
Featured article Battle of Dürenstein Featured article England expects that every man will do his duty Featured article War of the Fifth Coalition
Featured article Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg Featured article Battle of the Gebora Featured article Glorious First of June
Featured article Battle of Grand Port Featured article Peter Heywood Featured article Johann von Klenau
Featured article Battle of Lissa (1811) Featured article Murray Maxwell Featured article Battle of the Nile
Featured article USS President (1800) Featured article Battle of Pulo Aura Featured article HMS Speedy (1782)
Featured article Tarrare Featured article HMS Temeraire (1798) Featured article The Third of May 1808
Featured article Battle of Tory Island Featured article Ulm Campaign Featured article USS Constellation vs L'Insurgente
Featured article Battle of Winterthur (1799)
Featured lists
Featured list Timeline of the Adriatic campaign, 1807–1814 Featured list Army of the Danube order of battle Featured list Order of battle in the Atlantic campaign of 1806
Featured list Order of battle at the Battle of Camperdown Featured list Order of battle at the Battle of the Nile Featured list Order of battle at the Battle of Tory Island
Featured list Order of battle at the Glorious First of June Featured list Order of battle at the Battle of San Domingo
A-Class articles
A-Class article Gilbert du Motier, marquis de Lafayette A-Class article Battle of Marengo A-Class article Napoleon
A-Class article Battle of Ostrach A-Class article Battle record of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington

• • • Related topics • • •

• • • Associated Wikimedia • • •

The following Wikimedia Foundation sister projects provide more on this subject:

Wikibooks
Books

Commons
Media

Wikinews 
News

Wikiquote 
Quotations

Wikisource 
Texts

Wikiversity
Learning resources

Wiktionary 
Definitions

Wikidata 
Database

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Portal:Napoleonic_Wars&oldid=854887289"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Napoleonic_Wars
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Portal:Napoleonic Wars"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA