Portal:Military history of the Ottoman Empire

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Military history of the Ottoman Empire Portal

Introduction

Topcu arma.jpg
Artillery troop image on the Ottoman coat of arms.
The first military unit of the Ottoman Empire was an army that was organized by Osman I from Turkish tribesmen inhabiting western Anatolia in the late 14th century. These horsemen became an irregular force of raiders used as shock troops, armed with simple weapons like bows and spears. They were given fiefs called timars in the conquered lands, and were later called timariots. In addition they acquired booty during campaigns. Orhan I organized a standing army paid by salary rather than booty or fiefs. The infantry were called yayas and the cavalry was known as müsellems. The force was made up of foreign mercenaries for the most part, and only a few Turks were content to accept salaries in place of booty. Foreign mercenaries were not required to convert to Islam as long as they obeyed their Ottoman commanders.
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Hunchak newsletter

Armenian rebellions in the Ottoman Empire covers the activities of ethnic Armenian citizens of the Ottoman Empire to obtain independence, similar to other non-Ottoman ethnic groups in the empire starting around 1880 to the period of the Armenian genocide (1915–1917).

During this time among the Armenian elite, idea of republicanism replaced the absolute monarchy, and the Millet system of the Ottoman Armenians underwent a restructuring, which led to the establishment of the Armenian National Assembly in 1863 and took over some of the regulations of temporal matters of the Ottoman Armenian Community from the Patriarchate. While it took World War I for the establishment of First Armenian Republic, the Armenians had oscillated between the ideas of republic and autonomous region in the empire during the history of Ottoman democracy with organizations like Social Democrat Hunchakian Party and Armenakan. The Empire tried to cover the social needs by creating the Tanzimat era, the development of Ottomanism and First Constitutional Era. However, the coexistence of the communities under Ottomanism proved to be a dysfunctional solution as did the Second Constitutional Era which also ignited the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. (Read more...)

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Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha

Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha (Turkish: Barbaros Hayreddin Paşa or Hızır Hayreddin Paşa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kaptan-ı Derya (Fleet Admiral) of the Ottoman Navy) (c. 1478 – July 4, 1546), was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral who dominated the Mediterranean for decades. He was born on the island of Midilli (Lesbos in today's Greece) and died in Istanbul.

His original name was Yakupoğlu Hızır (Hızır son of Yakup). Hayreddin or Khair ad-Din, which literally means "Goodness of the Faith", was an honorary name given to him by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. He became known as Barbarossa (Redbeard) in Europe, a name he inherited from his older brother Baba Oruç (Father Aruj) after Oruç was killed in a battle with the Spanish in Algeria. Coincidentally, this name sounded like "Barbarossa" (Redbeard) to the Europeans, and he did have a red beard.

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The people think of wealth and power as the greatest fate, But in this world a spell of health is the best state. What men call sovereignty is a worldly strife and constant war; Worship of God is the highest throne, the happiest of all estate's.

For the throne, by Suleiman the Magnificent

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Map of the battle
The Battle of Vaslui (also referred to as the Battle of Podul Înalt or the Battle of Racova) (January 10, 1475) was fought between Stephen III of Moldavia and the Ottoman Beylerbeyi of Rumelia, Hadân Suleiman Pasha. The battle took place at Podul Înalt (the High Bridge), near the town of Vaslui, in Moldavia (now part of eastern Romania) between Barnaba and Racovica. The Ottoman troops numbered between 60,000 and 120,000, facing about 40,000 Moldavian troops, plus smaller numbers of allied and mercenary troops on both sides.

Stephen inflicted on the Ottomans a decisive defeat that has been described as "the greatest ever secured by the Cross against Islam," with casualties, according to Venetian and Polish records, reaching beyond 40,000 on the Ottoman side. Maraym Khanum (Mara Brankovic), who had formerly been the younger wife of Murad II, told a Venetian envoy that the invasion had been worst ever defeat for the Ottomans. Stephen was later awarded the title "Athleta Christi" (Champion of Christ) by Pope Sixtus IV, who referred to him as "Verus christiane fidei aletha" (The true Christian of the true faith). The Polish chronicler, Jan Długosz, hailed Stephen for his victory in the battle:

According to Długosz, Stephen did not celebrate his victory; instead, he fasted for forty days on bread and water and forbade anyone to attribute the victory to him, insisting that credit be given only to "The Lord."

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Mamluke.jpg

An Ottoman Mamluke

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Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
Osmanli-nisani.svg
Military &
political history
Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
Time span 14 years
Number of Sultans 2
See also Graphical timeline
1912
1913

Topics

Events
People
Rise of the Ottoman Empire (12991453)


Growth of the Ottoman Empire (14531683)



Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire (16831827)


Decline of the Ottoman Empire (18281908)


Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (19081922)
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From the Ottoman military history task force of the Military history WikiProject:

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Battle of al-Samn3rd Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)4th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)6th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)8th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)11th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)12th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)13th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)14th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)15th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)Ottoman-Turkoman warsGeorgian-Ottoman warsMuhammad Qasim Khan-e Qajar QuyunluHasan Ali MirzaKaikhusru MirzaAbul Husain MirzaJaafar Quli Khan-e Khajar QuyunluMirza Muhammad Khan-e Qajar DevehluMirza Muhammad Taqi Khan-e FarahaniAgha Vali KhanMirza Husain Khan QazviniMirza Muhammad Bakir KhanMuhammed Said of EgyptMuhammed Tawfik of EgyptHasan Ismail PashaMuhammed Ratib PashaIbrahim Hilmi PashaGuido von UsedomSayyid Ahmed Pasha as-SanussiMuhammed Pasha JahangiriMuhammed Said PashaMahmud Adam PashaMahmud Jalal ud-din PashaYahya Mansur Yeghen PashaMuhammed Nuri PashaIbrahim Fahmi Ahmed PashaHasan Ismail PashaMuhammed PashaZulkiful Ahmed PashaAli Khalid PashaAli Nur ud-din PashaMuhammed Kamal ud-din PashaDeli Fuad PashaMuhammed Tusun PashaAhmed Ayub PashaArif PashaAhmed Fathi PashaVelip PashaKasim Pasha JalimogluIbrahim Hilmi Ismail PashaHaji Muhammed Ali Pasha AliogluHasan Husni Pasha BozcandaliSiege of Senj
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Battle of KeresztesBattle of MaritsaJajce Castle9th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)7th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire);
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