Portal:Military history of the Ottoman Empire

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Military history of the Ottoman Empire Portal

Introduction

The history of the military of the Ottoman Empire can be divided in five main periods.[according to whom?] The foundation era covers the years between 1300 (Byzantine expedition) and 1453 (Fall of Constantinople), the classical period covers the years between 1451 (enthronement of Sultan Mehmed II) and 1606 (Peace of Zsitvatorok), the reformation period covers the years between 1606 and 1826 (Vaka-i Hayriye), the modernisation period covers the years between 1826 and 1858 and decline period covers the years between 1861 (enthronement of Sultan Abdülaziz) and 1918 (Armistice of Mudros).

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Battle of Vienna

The Battle of Vienna (Polish: Odsiecz Wiedeńska, German: Schlacht am Kahlenberg, Ukrainian: Віденська відсіч (Viděns'ka Vidsič), Turkish: İkinci Viyana Kuşatması) took place on September 11 and September 12, 1683 after Vienna had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months. The battle broke the advance of the Ottoman Empire into Europe, and marked the political hegemony of Habsburg dynasty.

The large-scale battle was won by Polish-Austrian-German forces led by King of Poland Jan III Sobieski against the Ottoman Empire army commanded by Grand Vizier Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha.

The siege itself began on 14 July 1683, by the Ottoman Empire army of approximately 138,000 men (although a large number of these played no part in the battle, as only 50,000 were experienced soldiers(Turks), and the rest less-motivated supporting troops. (Read more...)

Selected biography

Skanderbeg

George Kastrioti (Albanian: Gjergj Kastrioti), 1405 - January 17, 1468), better known as Skanderbeg (Albanian: Skënderbeu, Turkish: İskender[disambiguation needed] Bey "Lord Alexander"), is one of the most prominent historical figures in the history of Albania and the Albanian people. He is also known as the Dragon of Albania and is the national hero of the Albanians. He is remembered for his struggle against the Ottoman Empire, through the work of his first biographer, Marin Barleti.

According to Edward Gibbon, Skanderbeg's father, Gjon Kastrioti, was a hereditary prince of a small districts of Mat, Krujë, Mirditë and Dibër. Gjon Kastrioti was among those who opposed the early incursion of Ottoman Bayezid I, however his resistance was ineffectual. The Sultan, having accepted his submissions, obliged him to pay tribute and to ensure the fidelity of local rulers, George Kastrioti and his three brothers were taken by the Sultan to his court as hostages. After his conversion to Islam, he attended military school in Edirne and led many battles for the Ottoman Empire to victory. For his military victories, he received the title Arnavutlu İskender Bey, (Albanian: Skënderbeu Shqiptari, English: Skanderbeg, the Albanian). In Turkish and Albanian this title means Lord Alexander the Albanian, comparing Kastrioti's military brilliance to that of Alexander the Great).

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Praiseworthy hero, in no respect inferior to other hero soldiers we admire. He was the first contemporary among the rulers of the world to score a decisive victory against the Turks. To my mind, he is the worthiest to lead a coalition of the Christian Europe against the Turks.

—The Polish chronicler Jan Długosz, hailing Stephen III of Moldavia on the Battle of Vaslui

Selected event

The Ottoman-Egyptian Invasion of Mani was a campaign during the Greek War of Independence with three battles. The Maniots fought against a combined Egyptian and Ottoman army under the command of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt.

On March 17, 1821, the Maniots (residents of the center peninsula on the southern part of Peloponnese) declared war on the Ottoman Empire, preceding the rest of Greece in joining the revolution, by about a week. The various Greek forces won a quick string of victories, however, disputes broke out amongst the leaders and anarchy ensued. The Ottomans seized this chance and called for reinforcements from Egypt. The reinforcements came under the command of Ibrahim Pasha, the son of the leader of Egypt, Muhammad Ali. With the Greeks in disarray, Ibrahim ravaged the Peloponnese and after a brief siege he captured the city of Messolonghi. He then tried to capture Nauplio but he was driven back. He then turned his attention to the only place in the Peloponnese that was free: Mani.

Ibrahim tried to enter Mani from the north-east near Almiro on the June 21, 1826, but he was forced to stop at the fortifications at Vergas. His army of 7,000 men was held off by an army of 2,000 Maniots and 500 refugees from other parts of Greece. Due to Egyptian and Ottoman artillery, the disadvantaged Maniots managed to hold off the Ottomans. Ibrahim sent 1,500 men to try to land near Areopolis and go north to threaten the Maniot rear. This force was initially successful, however the women and old men of the area fought back and repelled them with heavy losses. When the Egyptians at Vergas heard that Theodoros Kolokotronis was coming from their rear they retreated.

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Ottoman Sultan Abdulaziz I

Ottoman Sultan Abdulaziz I - (1830-1876).

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Topics

Events
People
Rise of the Ottoman Empire (12991453)


Growth of the Ottoman Empire (14531683)



Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire (16831827)


Decline of the Ottoman Empire (18281908)


Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (19081922)
Sultans







































 
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From the Ottoman military history task force of the Military history WikiProject:

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Battle of al-Samn3rd Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)4th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)6th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)8th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)11th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)12th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)13th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)14th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)15th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)Ottoman-Turkoman warsGeorgian-Ottoman warsMuhammad Qasim Khan-e Qajar QuyunluHasan Ali MirzaKaikhusru MirzaAbul Husain MirzaJaafar Quli Khan-e Khajar QuyunluMirza Muhammad Khan-e Qajar DevehluMirza Muhammad Taqi Khan-e FarahaniAgha Vali KhanMirza Husain Khan QazviniMirza Muhammad Bakir KhanMuhammed Said of EgyptMuhammed Tawfik of EgyptHasan Ismail PashaMuhammed Ratib PashaIbrahim Hilmi PashaGuido von UsedomSayyid Ahmed Pasha as-SanussiMuhammed Pasha JahangiriMuhammed Said PashaMahmud Adam PashaMahmud Jalal ud-din PashaYahya Mansur Yeghen PashaMuhammed Nuri PashaIbrahim Fahmi Ahmed PashaHasan Ismail PashaMuhammed PashaZulkiful Ahmed PashaAli Khalid PashaAli Nur ud-din PashaMuhammed Kamal ud-din PashaDeli Fuad PashaMuhammed Tusun PashaAhmed Ayub PashaArif PashaAhmed Fathi PashaVelip PashaKasim Pasha JalimogluIbrahim Hilmi Ismail PashaHaji Muhammed Ali Pasha AliogluHasan Husni Pasha BozcandaliSiege of Senj
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Battle of KeresztesBattle of MaritsaJajce Castle9th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)7th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire);
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