Portal:Military history of the Ottoman Empire

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Introduction

The history of the military of the Ottoman Empire can be divided in five main periods.[according to whom?] The foundation era covers the years between 1300 (Byzantine expedition) and 1453 (Fall of Constantinople), the classical period covers the years between 1451 (enthronement of Sultan Mehmed II) and 1606 (Peace of Zsitvatorok), the reformation period covers the years between 1606 and 1826 (Vaka-i Hayriye), the modernisation period covers the years between 1826 and 1858 and decline period covers the years between 1861 (enthronement of Sultan Abdülaziz) and 1918 (Armistice of Mudros).

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Monastery Agia Lavra, Peloponnese, 1821. "Germanos blessing the flag".

The Greek War of Independence (1821–1831), also known as the Greek Revolution (Greek: Ελληνική Επανάσταση Elliniki Epanastasi, Ottoman Turkish: يؤنان ئسياني Yunan İsyanı, i.e. "Greek insurgence"), was a successful war waged by the Greeks to win independence for Greece from the Ottoman Empire. Independence was finally granted by the Treaty of Constantinople in July 1832 when Greece (Hellas) was recognized as a free country. The Greeks were the first of the subject peoples of the Ottoman Empire to secure recognition as a sovereign power. Greeks celebrate their Independence Day annually on March 25.

The Ottoman Empire had ruled almost all of Greece, with the exception of the Ionian Islands since its conquest of the Byzantine Empire over the course of the 14th and 15th centuries. However, in the 18th and 19th centuries, as revolutionary nationalism grew across Europe (due, in part, to the influence of the French Revolution), and the power of the Ottoman Empire declined, Greek nationalism began to assert itself and drew support from Western European "philhellenes".

The Greek Revolution was not an isolated event; there were numerous failed attempts at regaining independence throughout the history of the Ottoman occupation of Greece. For example, in 1603 there was an attempt in the Peloponnese to restore the Byzantine Empire, and throughout the 17th century there was great resistance to the Turks in the Peloponnesus.[1] Perhaps the most famous of these is the Orlov Revolt of 1770. The Mani Peninsula of Peloponnesos also continually resisted Turkish rule, defeating several Turkish incursions into the region, the most famous of which was the Ottoman invasion of Mani (1770). (Read more...)

References

  1. ^ Kassis, "Mani's History", 29

Selected biography

Suleiman the Magnificent

Suleyman I (Ottoman Turkish: سليمانSulaymān, Turkish: Süleyman; the long name is Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6 1566), was the tenth Sultan from the House of Osman of the Ottoman Empire, and the longest-serving one, reigning from 1520 to 1566. He is known to the West as Suleiman the Magnificent. In the Islamic world, he is known as the Lawgiver (in Turkish Kanuni; Arabic: القانونى‎, al-Qānūnī), a nickname stemming from his complete reconstruction of the Ottoman legal system. Within the empire, Suleiman was known as a fair ruler and an opponent of corruption. He was a great patron of artists and philosophers, and was noted as one of the greatest Islamic poets, as well as an accomplished goldsmith.

Suleiman was considered one of the pre-eminent rulers of 16th-century Europe, a respected rival to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (1519–56), Francis I of France (1515–47), Henry VIII of England (1509–47), Sigismund II of Poland (1548–72), and Ivan IV of Russia (1530–84). Under his leadership, the Ottoman Empire reached its Golden Age and became a world power. Suleiman personally led Ottoman armies to conquer Belgrade, Rhodes, and most of Hungary, laid the Siege of Vienna, and annexed most of the Middle East and huge territories in North Africa as far west as Algeria. For a short period, Ottomans achieved naval dominance in the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, and Persian Gulf. The Ottoman Empire continued to expand for a century after his death.

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So in Europe, we had empires. Everyone had them - France and Spain and Britain and Turkey! The Ottoman Empire, full of furniture for some reason. And the Austro-Hungarian Empire, famous for fuck all! Yes, all they did was slowly collapse like a flan in a cupboard.

Eddie Izzard, British comedian and actor on the Ottoman Empire

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Map of the battle
The Battle of Vaslui (also referred to as the Battle of Podul Înalt or the Battle of Racova) (January 10, 1475) was fought between Stephen III of Moldavia and the Ottoman Beylerbeyi of Rumelia, Hadân Suleiman Pasha. The battle took place at Podul Înalt (the High Bridge), near the town of Vaslui, in Moldavia (now part of eastern Romania) between Barnaba and Racovica. The Ottoman troops numbered between 60,000 and 120,000, facing about 40,000 Moldavian troops, plus smaller numbers of allied and mercenary troops on both sides.

Stephen inflicted on the Ottomans a decisive defeat that has been described as "the greatest ever secured by the Cross against Islam," with casualties, according to Venetian and Polish records, reaching beyond 40,000 on the Ottoman side. Maraym Khanum (Mara Brankovic), who had formerly been the younger wife of Murad II, told a Venetian envoy that the invasion had been worst ever defeat for the Ottomans. Stephen was later awarded the title "Athleta Christi" (Champion of Christ) by Pope Sixtus IV, who referred to him as "Verus christiane fidei aletha" (The true Christian of the true faith). The Polish chronicler, Jan Długosz, hailed Stephen for his victory in the battle:

According to Długosz, Stephen did not celebrate his victory; instead, he fasted for forty days on bread and water and forbade anyone to attribute the victory to him, insisting that credit be given only to "The Lord."

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Ottoman military band

Ottoman military band - (Mehterhane, Military Band, 1839)

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Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
Osmanli-nisani.svg
Military &
political history
Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
Time span 14 years
Number of Sultans 2
See also Graphical timeline
1912
1913

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From the Ottoman military history task force of the Military history WikiProject:

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