Portal:Military history of the Ottoman Empire

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Military history of the Ottoman Empire Portal

Introduction

Topcu arma.jpg
Artillery troop image on the Ottoman coat of arms.
The first military unit of the Ottoman Empire was an army that was organized by Osman I from Turkish tribesmen inhabiting western Anatolia in the late 14th century. These horsemen became an irregular force of raiders used as shock troops, armed with simple weapons like bows and spears. They were given fiefs called timars in the conquered lands, and were later called timariots. In addition they acquired booty during campaigns. Orhan I organized a standing army paid by salary rather than booty or fiefs. The infantry were called yayas and the cavalry was known as müsellems. The force was made up of foreign mercenaries for the most part, and only a few Turks were content to accept salaries in place of booty. Foreign mercenaries were not required to convert to Islam as long as they obeyed their Ottoman commanders.
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Consequences of the Battle of Mohács, and the conquest of Buda in 1541 by the Ottomans: the Kingdom is partitioned.

Ottoman Hungary or Muslim Hungary refers to the Turkish-Ottoman age of today's Hungary (1526–1699).

By the sixteenth century, the power of the Ottoman Empire had increased gradually, as did the territory occupied by them in the Balkans, while the Kingdom of Hungary was weakened by the peasants' uprisings. Under the reign of Louis II Jagiellon (1516–1526), internal dissentions divided the nobility.

After capturing Belgrade in 1521, Süleyman the Magnificent (1520–1566) did not hesitate to launch an attack against the weakened Kingdom, whose smaller (~26 000 vs. ~100 000 strong), badly lead army was defeated on 29 August, 1526 at the Battle of Mohács. Thus he became the master the Kingdom of Hungary, having a semi-vassal king, named János Szapolyai. Suleyman went further and tried to oust the Habsburg for the Hungarian game, and laid siege to Vienna in 1529, but failed to take that city after the onset of winter forced his retreat. The territory of the Kingdom was disputed between the Ottomans and the Habsburgs until 1541. Both of them had their own king for Hungary. After the seizure of Buda by the Turks in 1541, the West and North remained in the Habsburgs' hands ("Royal Hungary"), while the central and southern counties were occupied by the Sultan, with the territory becoming one of the 42 eyalets (provinces) of the Ottoman Empire, with the capital at Budin (Buda). Later, the eyalets of Eğri (اكر ) and Kanije were created. (Read More...)

Selected biography

Skanderbeg

George Kastrioti (Albanian: Gjergj Kastrioti), 1405 - January 17, 1468), better known as Skanderbeg (Albanian: Skënderbeu, Turkish: İskender[disambiguation needed] Bey "Lord Alexander"), is one of the most prominent historical figures in the history of Albania and the Albanian people. He is also known as the Dragon of Albania and is the national hero of the Albanians. He is remembered for his struggle against the Ottoman Empire, through the work of his first biographer, Marin Barleti.

According to Edward Gibbon, Skanderbeg's father, Gjon Kastrioti, was a hereditary prince of a small districts of Mat, Krujë, Mirditë and Dibër. Gjon Kastrioti was among those who opposed the early incursion of Ottoman Bayezid I, however his resistance was ineffectual. The Sultan, having accepted his submissions, obliged him to pay tribute and to ensure the fidelity of local rulers, George Kastrioti and his three brothers were taken by the Sultan to his court as hostages. After his conversion to Islam, he attended military school in Edirne and led many battles for the Ottoman Empire to victory. For his military victories, he received the title Arnavutlu İskender Bey, (Albanian: Skënderbeu Shqiptari, English: Skanderbeg, the Albanian). In Turkish and Albanian this title means Lord Alexander the Albanian, comparing Kastrioti's military brilliance to that of Alexander the Great).

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So in Europe, we had empires. Everyone had them - France and Spain and Britain and Turkey! The Ottoman Empire, full of furniture for some reason. And the Austro-Hungarian Empire, famous for fuck all! Yes, all they did was slowly collapse like a flan in a cupboard.

Eddie Izzard, British comedian and actor on the Ottoman Empire

Selected event

Russian-Circassian-War.jpg
The Russian-Circassian War is the name given to the period of hostilities between the Russian Empire and the inhabitants of Circassia during the Russian invasion and occupation of the Circassian region. Circassia, (also known as Cherkessia in Russian) was a region in Caucasia[disambiguation needed] which comprised the coastline and most of the interior of the current territory of Krasnodar Krai.[1] The historical region was named after the traditional inhabitants, the Circassians, Adyghe or Adiga, along with a number of smaller ethnic groups and tribes. The Russian–Circassian conflict took place from the initial arrival of Russian forces in 1763 to the signing of several Russian loyalty oaths by, among others, Circassian leaders on June 2, 1864, (May 21, O.S.), an event which signalled the end of the larger Caucasian War of which the Russian–Circassian conflict had become a part.

These loyalty oaths illustrated what had become a total occupation of the region by Russian forces, the result of over 100 years of conflict, which also involved the forced expulsion of millions of indigenous Circassians to areas of the Ottoman Empire, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Kosovo,[2] with some historians citing that up to 4,000,000 civilians perished as a result of the exodus.

References

  1. ^ Unrepresented Nations and People Organisation (UNPO) Circassia article retrieved on April 4, 2007
  2. ^ Unrepresented Nations and People Organisation (UNPO) Circassia article retrieved on April 4, 2007

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Mamluke.jpg

An Ottoman Mamluke

Selected chronology

Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire
Osmanli-nisani.svg
Military &
political history
Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire
Time span 144 years
Number of Sultans 11
See also Graphical timeline
1683

Topics

Events
People
Rise of the Ottoman Empire (12991453)


Growth of the Ottoman Empire (14531683)



Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire (16831827)


Decline of the Ottoman Empire (18281908)


Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (19081922)
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