Portal:Military history of Africa

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The Military history of Africa Portal

The military history of Africa is one of the oldest and most diverse military histories. Africa is a continent of diverse regions with diverse people speaking hundreds of different languages with many different cultures and religions. These differences have been the source of much conflict.

Like the history of Africa, African military history is often divided by region. North Africa was part of the Mediterranean cultures and was integral to the military history of antiquity. The military history of modern Africa may be divided into three broad time periods: pre-colonial, colonial, and post-colonial.

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Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell OM, GCMG, GCVO, KCB (22 February 1857 – 8 January 1941), also known as B-P, was a lieutenant-general in the British Army, writer, and founder of the Scout Movement.

After having been educated at Charterhouse School, Baden-Powell served in the British Army from 1876 until 1910 in India and Africa. In 1899, during the Second Boer War in South Africa, Baden-Powell successfully defended the city in the Siege of Mafeking. Several of his military books, written for military reconnaissance and scout training in his African years, were also read by boys. Based on those earlier books, he wrote Scouting for Boys, published in 1908 by Pearson, for youth readership. During writing, he tested his ideas through a camping trip on Brownsea Island in 1907, which is now seen as the beginning of Scouting.

After his marriage with Olave St Clair Soames, Baden-Powell, his sister Agnes Baden-Powell and notably his wife actively gave guidance to the Scouting Movement and the Girl Guides Movement. Baden-Powell lived his last years in Nyeri, Kenya, where he died in 1941.

Selected biography

Kaúlza de Arriaga (January 18, 1915 - February 3, 2004) was a Portuguese Brigadier General, writer, professor and politician. He was minister of National Defense between 1953 and 1955 and he was commander of the Terrestrial Forces in Moçambique from 1969 until 1974 during the Mozambican War of Independence.

Arriaga completed a course in mathematics and engineering and then volunteered for the Portuguese Army on November 1, 1935. He took a Military and Civil Engineering course in the Military Academy which he graduated from in 1939, and was assigned to the general staff of the Portuguese Institute of Military Studies. Here he petitioned for reforms to the conscription system, as well as training and the integration of paratroopers into the Portuguese Air Force. Arriaga commanded the Portuguese forces in the Mozambican conflict from 1969 until 1974, taking over from General Augusto dos Santos and organising the ill-fated Operation Knot Górdio in 1970.

Arrigaga took a decisive role in the Carnation Revolution of April 25, 1974 in Lisbon. he held a number of political positions during the unrest, including Head of the Ministry of Defense Cabinet, Undersecretary of State for Aeronautics, professor of the Institute of High Military Studies, president of the Nuclear Energy commission and executive president of the oil company Angol SA. he was president of an extremely right wing political party during elections in 1980.

Quotes

"I will find you... if it takes my life." — Solomon Vandy to his son - Blood Diamond (film)

Equipment

Aérospatiale SA-318 BW Alouette II

The Alouette II is a light helicopter originally manufactured by Sud Aviation and later Aérospatiale of France. The Alouette II is the first helicopter to use a gas turbine instead of a conventional heavier piston engine.

It was mostly used for military purposes in observation, photography, air/sea rescue, liaison and training but it has also carried anti-tank missiles and homing torpedoes. As a civilian helicopter it was put to use as a casualty evacuation (with two external stretcher panniers), crop-spraying and flying crane (with a 500kg external sling load).

Alouette II is used by Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Guinea-Bissau, Morocco, Senegal, Togo and Tunisia.

Selected picture

An American Black Hawk helicopter over Mogadishu, Somalia in 1993.

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