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The Mauritania Portal - بوابة موريتانيا


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Mauritania (Arabic: موريتانيا‎ Mūrītāniyā) is a country in northwest Africa. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean on the west, by Senegal on the southwest, by Mali on the east and southeast, by Algeria on the northeast, and by the Morocco-controlled Western Sahara on the northwest. It is named after the Roman province of Mauretania, even though the modern state covers a territory far to the southwest of the old province. The capital and largest city is Nouakchott, located on the Atlantic coast.

The civilian government of Mauritania was overthrown on 6 August 2008, in a military coup d'état led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz. On April 16, 2009, General Aziz resigned from the military to run for president in the July 19 elections, which he won. In Mauritania about 20% of the population live on less than US $1.25 per day.

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Located in the Sahelian and Saharan zones, Mauritania has one of the poorest agricultural bases in West Africa. Most important to the rural economy has been the livestock subsector. Between 1975 and 1980, herding engaged up to 70 percent of the population, and sedentary farmers constituted about 20 percent of the population. The vast majority of the population lived in the southern one-third of the country, where rainfall levels were high enough to sustain cattle herding. Farming was restricted to the narrow band along the Senegal River where rainfall of up to 600 millimeters per year and annual river flooding sustained crop production as well as large cattle herds. In the dry northern two-thirds of the country, herding was limited to widely scattered pastoral groups that raised camels, sheep, and goats, and farming was restricted to date palms and minuscule plots around oases.

A major reason for Mauritania's economic stagnation since the mid-1970s has been the decline of its rural sector. Government planners neglected both herding and farming until the 1980s, concentrating instead on development in the modern sector. The rural sector was severely affected by droughts from 1968 through 1973 and from 1983 through 1985, and it has suffered from sporadic dry spells in other years. In the 1960s, livestock and crop production together provided 35 to 45 percent of GDP (at constant 1982 prices). From 1970 to 1986, their contribution to GDP (at constant 1982 prices) averaged 28 percent, with herding accounting for about 20 percent of this figure and with crop production falling to as low as 3 to 5 percent in the worst drought years. Millet and sorghum production reached 10,000 and 75,000 tons, respectively, in 1999. Other crop production in 1999 included paddy rice, 102,000 tons; and corn, 8,000 tons. Date production was 22,000 tons in 1999. (Read more...)

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Credit: Ferdinand Reus

School children in Mauritania.

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In the news


Wikinews Mauritania portal
  • June 18: UN passes LGBT rights resolution
  • April 30: Algerian driver released by hostage takers in Niger
  • March 13: Kidnapped Spanish aid worker is released
  • March 7: Polio vaccination campaign targets 85 million African children
  • March 6: Mauritania cuts ties with Israel, expels Israeli diplomats
  • December 21: Deposed Mauritanian president Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi is released
  • August 6: Mauritania president Abdallahi arrested in coup
  • January 29: Mauritanian refugees begin returning home from Senegal
  • January 6: 2008 Dakar Rally cancelled over terrorist threat
  • December 25: Four French tourists killed in Mauritania



Selected biography


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Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya (Arabic: معاوية ولد سيد أحمد الطايع‎) (born 1941), also transliterated as Mu'awiya walad Sayyidi Ahmad Taya, was Prime Minister of Mauritania from 1981 to 1984 and president from 1984 to 2005. He guided Mauritania from military rule to democracy, and took a pro-Western stance in foreign affairs. He was ousted by a military coup in 2005.

Born in the town of Atar (Adrar Region), Ould Taya attended a Franco-Arabic Primary School from 1949 to 1955. He then attended Rosso High School in southern Mauritania. After graduation, he attended a French military school in 1960 and graduated as an officer. In 1975, he received strategic training at the French War Academy. In 1978 the Mauritanian army seized power and ousted President Moktar Ould Daddah, in an attempt to forestall government collapse in the war over Western Sahara against the Polisario Front (1975-79). Ould Taya was among the conspirators, and quickly gained influence within the government. (Read more...)

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