Portal:Communism

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Communist star with golden border and red rims.svg Marx + Engels + Lenin .svg THE COMMUNISM PORTAL Marx + Engels + Lenin .svg Communist star with golden border and red rims.svg


Communism is a political ideology that seeks to establish a future without social class or formalized state structure, and with social organization based upon common ownership of the means of production. It can be classified as a branch of the broader socialist movement. Communism also refers to a variety of political movements which claim the establishment of such a social organization as their ultimate goal. Early forms of human social organization have been described as "primitive communism". However, communism as a political goal generally is a conjectured form of future social organization which has never been implemented. Marxism is a form of socioeconomic analysis that analyses class relations and societal conflict using dialectical materialism. There is a considerable variety of views among self-identified communists, including Bolshevism, Stalinism, Trotskyism, Maoism, council communism, Luxemburgism, Western Marxism and various currents of left communism, which are in addition to more widespread varieties. However, various offshoots of the Soviet and Maoist forms of Marxism–Leninism comprise a particular branch of communism that had been the primary driving force for communism in world politics during most of the 20th century.

The Soviet Union was a one-party federation, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital, which lasted from 1922 to 1991. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government. There was a succession of Soviet secret police agencies over time: Cheka, GPU, OGPU, NKVD, NKGB, MGB and KGB. The activities of these agencies include: suppression of dissent and political opposition, persecution and deportation of deserters, religious people, Jews, invasions, fabrication of crimes, espionage and disinformation. Joseph Stalin's cult of personality became a prominent part of Soviet culture in December 1929, after a lavish celebration for Stalin's 50th birthday. The Soviet Union has been described as totalitarian police state. The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc and powers in the Western Bloc. Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947 and 1991.

Mass killings occurred under some Communist regimes during the twentieth century: the Red Terror occurred during the Russian Civil War, Decossackization aimed at the elimination of the Cossacks, the Soviet famine of 1932–33 was a man-made famine that affected the major grain-producing areas of the Soviet Union, leading to millions of deaths, Dekulakization included the murder of peasants, purges of the Communist Party in the Union were a key ritual in which periodic reviews of members of the Communist Party were conducted to get rid of the "undesirables", NKVD prisoner massacres were a series of mass executions carried out by the Soviet NKVD secret police during World War II against political prisoners across Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union has also conducted several acts described as war crimes. Concentration camps came to be know as Gulags, established officially in 1930. Racism in the Soviet Union targeted Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europeans, Jews and Asians. There was systematic political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union, based on the interpretation of political opposition or dissent as a psychiatric problem. Homosexuality was criminalized from 1933 to 1993.

Selected article

Soviet stamp, celebrating 30th Anniversary of the Magazine "Problems of Peace and Socialism"
Problems of Peace and Socialism (Russian: Проблемы мира и социализма), often referred to by the name of its English-language edition World Marxist Review (WMR), was a joint theoretical and ideological magazine of communist and workers parties around the world. It existed for 32 years, until it closed down in June 1990. The offices of WMR were based in Prague, Czechoslovakia. Each edition of the magazine had a circulation of above half a million, being read in some 145 countries. At its height, WMR appeared in 41 languages, and editors from 69 communist parties around worked at its office in Prague. The master copy of the magazine was its Russian-language edition Problemy Mira i Sotsializma.


Selected biography

Lin Biao
Lin Biao (pinyin: Lín Biāo; IPA: [lǐn pjáu]; 5 December 1907 – 13 September 1971) was a major Chinese Communist military leader who was pivotal in the communist victory in the Chinese Civil War, especially in Northeastern China. Lin was the general who commanded the decisive Liaoshen Campaign and Pingjin Campaign, co-led the Manchurian Field Army of the People's Liberation Army into Beijing, and crossed the Yangtze River in 1949. He ranked third among the Ten Marshals. Zhu De and Peng Dehuai were considered senior to Lin, and Lin ranked directly ahead of He Long and Liu Bocheng.

Lin abstained from taking an active role in politics after the civil war, but became instrumental in creating the foundations for Mao Zedong's cult of personality in the early 1960s. Lin was rewarded for his service to Mao by being named Mao's designated successor during the Cultural Revolution, from 1966 until his death.

Lin died in September 1971 when his plane crashed in Mongolia, following what appeared to be a failed coup to oust Mao. Because little inside information is available to the public on what has been dubbed as the "Lin Biao incident", the exact events preceding Lin's death have been a source of speculation ever since. Following Lin's death, he was officially condemned as a traitor by the Communist Party of China. He and Jiang Qing are still considered to be the two "major Counter-revolutionary cliques" blamed for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution.


Selected quote

Together with this inquestionable increase in the number of workers occupied in industry, we are also confronted in Soviet Russia with an increase in the number of unemployed registered on the Labour Exchange. The number of unemployed has attained about a million. There have been months when the number of unemployed has even exceeded that amount.

Unemployment is one of the most distressing phenomena in Russia a the present time, and we must take every measure to abolish it. Of the entire number of unemployed about one fourth, or 25%, are industrial workers, and the remainder is made up of the intelligentzia, the professions, office workers and unskilled labourers. I must admit that I personally do not place complete confidence in the official statistics of the Labour Exchange, because of that fact that all kinds of people are registered on the exchange for the sake of receiving those priveleges for the unemployed and those conditions of hire which are guaranteed by the laws of the Soviet Republic, and which are inflexibly carried out. Here are registered not only those who are looking for work, but also those who would not accept work, and are merely looking for the priveleges and exemptions which are connected with the category of unemployment. We have constantly discovered cases where people who have been arrested and sentenced to Pechora (a place of exile-to Archangel) on the charge of speculation, have been registered on the Labour Exchange as unemployed. Therefore in my opinion the official figures probably exceed the actual number of unemployed. But in general we must take cognizance of the growth of number of unemployed, which goes parallel with the growth of the number of workers occupied in industry.

— Alexei Rykov (1881-1938)
REPORT on the Economic Position of Soviet Russia and a summary of the Discussion in the Russian Communist Party , 1924

Selected picture

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Articles:
  • Arabic:
    • احمد نبيل الهلالي, حزب الشعب الفلسطيني
  • Asturian:
    • Movimientu Comunista d'Asturies, Horacio Fernández Inguanzo
  • Bulgarian:
    • Българска комунистическа партия, Георги Димитров, Андрей Луканов, Милко Балев, Цола Драгойчева, Георги Пирински (старши)
  • Catalan:
    • Partit Socialista Unificat de Catalunya, Antonio García Quejido, PSAN, Partit Comunista de Birmània, Partit Obrer Revolucionari, Partit del Treball de Catalunya,
  • Croatian:
    • Socijalistička radnička partija Jugoslavije (komunista)
  • Czech:
    • Komunistická strana Čech a Moravy, Socialistický svaz mládeže, Svaz československo-sovětského přátelství, Komunistická strana Československa (1995), Komunistická strana Československa - Československá strana práce, Lumír Sakmar, Socialismus - budoucnost světa
  • Danish:
    • da:Danmarks Kommunistiske Parti, da:Kommunistisk Parti, Arbejderpartiet Kommunisterne, DKP/ML, Fælles Kurs
  • Dutch:
    • Communistenbond van Bosnië-Herzegovina, De Tribune, De Vonk, Democratische Federatie van Hongaarse Vrouwen, Dimitrov Communistische Jeugdunie, Gerardus Johannes Marinus van het Reve, Hongaars Onafhankelijkheidsfront, Lijst van CPN-fractievoorzitters Tweede Kamer, Marxistischer Studentenbund Spartakus, Montenegrijnse Communistenbond, Nationale Raad van Hongaarse Vrouwen, De Waarheid, Elli Schmidt, Miljan Radović, Patriottisch Volksfront, PRON, Marko Orlandić, Ina Brouwer, Leendert van den Muijzenberg, Daan Monjé
  • Esperanto:
    • IKEK, Internacio de Proleta Esperantistaro, ESKI
  • Estonian:
    • Hans Pöögelmann, Karl Vaino
  • Farsi:
    • حزب کار ایران (طوفان), حزب کمونیست ایران, حزب کمونیست کارگری ایران, حزب کمونیست کارگری ایران-حکمتیست, حزب کمونیست کارگری چپ عراق, عصام شکری
  • Finnish:
    • Vallankumouksellinen nuorisoliitto, Sosialistinen opiskelijaliitto, Demokraattinen Vaihtoehto, Suomen kommunistinen nuorisoliitto, Sirola-opisto, Taisto Sinisalo
  • French:
    • Bureau international pour le parti révolutionnaire, Association des écrivains et artistes révolutionnaires, Union des combattants communistes, Groupe communiste révolutionnaire internationaliste, COMAC (jeunes communistes belges), Mouvement communiste français (marxiste-léniniste), Parti communiste révolutionnaire (marxiste-léniniste), Parti pour une alternative communiste, Union des Communistes de France Marxiste-Léniniste, Union des étudiants communistes
  • German:
    • Arbeiterbund für den Wiederaufbau der KPD, Allgemeine Arbeiter-Union – Einheitsorganisation, GegenStandpunkt, Kommunistische Jugend Österreichs - Junge Linke, Kommunistischer StudentInnenverband, Kommunistische Partei der Türkei/Marxisten Leninisten, Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, Kommunistische Partei Österreichs, Kommunistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands, Kommunistischer Jugendverband Deutschlands (1970er), Kommunistischer Oberschülerverband, Marxistisch-Leninistische Partei Deutschlands, Marxistische Gruppe, Münchner Räterepublik, Rote Gruppe, Rote Marine, Roter Frontkämpferbund, Sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterjugend, Spartakusbund, Vereinigte Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands
  • Greek:
    • Σοσιαλιστικό Εργατικό Κόμμα Ελλάδος
  • Hebrew:
    • רק"ח, המפלגה הקומוניסטית הישראלית
  • Hungarian:
    • Kommunizmus Magyarországon, Kommunista Ifjúsági Szövetség
  • Icelandic:
    • Alþýðubandalagið, Hannibal Valdimarsson, Sameiningarflokkur alþýðu - Sósíalistaflokkurinn
  • Italian:
    • Federazione Giovanile Comunista Italiana
  • Japanese:
    • 日本共産党 (左派), 日本共産党 (日本のこえ), 志賀義雄, 日本民主青年同盟, 全日本民主医療機関連合会, 日中共産党の関係
  • Korean:
    • 조선공산당, 남조선 로동당, 자주파(NL), 남로당 분류
  • Lithuanian:
    • Vincas Kapsukas, Kazys Giedrys, Lietuvos socialistų liaudininkų sąjunga
  • Malayalam:
    • വി.എസ്. അച്യുതാനന്ദന്‍
  • Norwegian:
    • ML-gruppa Revolusjon, Peder Furubotn, Zafer Gözet, Sverre Støstad, Kirsten Hansteen, Arne Gauslå, Tjen folket, Søstre, kamerater!
  • Romanian:
    • Listă de comunişti români, Partidul Comunist al Moldovei
  • Russian:
    • Коммунизм, Анархо-коммунизм, Левый коммунизм, Ленин, Владимир Ильич, Коммунистическая партия Советского Союза, Коммунистический интернационал, История коммунистических учений
  • Slovene:
    • Komunistična partija Slovenije, Vinko Hafner, Stane Žagar, Roman Naumovič Močulsk
  • Spanish:
    • Joventut Comunista del País Valencià, Colectivos de Jóvenes Comunistas, Frente Revolucionario Antifascista y Patriota, Unión de Juventudes Comunistas de España, Las Trece Rosas, Julián Grimau, Gladys Marín, Luis Emilio Recabarren, Partido Comunista de España Unificado, Partido Socialista Popular (Cuba), Unión Navarra de Izquierdas, Organización Revolucionaria de Trabajadores
  • Swedish:
    • Rebellrörelsen, Gustav Johansson, Nanjie
  • Turkish:
    • Halk İştirakiyun Fırkası, Türkiye Komünist Partisi, Türkiye İşçi Partisi, Sosyalist Türkiye Partisi, Rıza Yürükoğlu, Emek Partisi,İşçi Partisi

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