Portal:Martial arts

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The Martial arts Portal

Martial arts are systems of codified practices and traditions of training for combat. While they may be studied for many reasons, martial arts share a single objective: to defeat a person physically or to defend oneself from physical threat. In addition, some martial arts are linked to spiritual or religious beliefs and philosophies such as Sikhism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Daoism, Shinto or Confucianism while others have their own spiritual or non-spiritual code of honor. Many arts are also practiced competitively most commonly as combat sports, but may also be in the form of dance.

Boxing was practiced in the ancient Mediterranean

In popular culture, the term martial arts often specifically refers to the combat systems that originated in Asian cultures. However, the term actually refers to any sort of codified combat systems, regardless of origin. Europe is home to many systems of martial arts, both living traditions (e.g. jogo do pau and other stick and sword fencing and savate, a French kicking style developed by sailors and street fighters) and older systems collectively referred to as historical European martial arts that existed until modern times and are now being reconstructed by several organizations. In the Americas, Native Americans have a tradition of open-handed martial arts, which includes wrestling, and Hawaiians have historically practiced arts featuring small and large joint manipulation. A mix of origins occur in the athletic movements of capoeira, a practice that was created in Brazil by slaves and was based on skills brought with them from Africa.

While each style has unique facets that make it different from other martial arts, a common characteristic is the systematization of fighting techniques. Methods of training vary and may include sparring or forms (kata), which are sets or routines of techniques that are performed alone, or sometimes with a partner, and which are especially common in the Asian and Asian-derived martial arts.

The word martial derives from the name of Mars, the Roman god of war. The term martial arts literally means arts of war. This term comes from 15th-century Europeans who were referring to their own fighting arts. A practitioner of martial arts can be referred to as a martial artist.

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World Master Chong Chul Rhee, Father of Australian Taekwondo
Rhee Taekwon-Do, also known as Rhee Tae Kwon-Do, Rhee Tae Kwon Do, or Rhee Taekwondo, is a martial art school in Australia and New Zealand teaching the Korean martial art of taekwondo. Its full name is "Rhee International Taekwon-Do" with "(Australia)" or "(New Zealand)" appended. Chong Chul Rhee founded the school in Adelaide in the mid-1960s. Two of Rhee's brothers, Chong Hyup Rhee and Chong Yoon Rhee, later came to assist him. Rhee Taekwon-Do is widely publicised as being Australia's first and biggest taekwondo school. It has at least 294 publicly-listed dojang in Australia (and at least five such dojang in New Zealand), with perhaps around 1,400 dojang in total at its peak. Several Australian martial art school founders received their foundational taekwondo training in Rhee's school. Rhee Taekwon-Do is an independent martial art organisation. It was once affiliated to the International Taekwon-Do Federation, but has had no relation to the World Taekwondo Federation. Rhee Taekwon-Do training consists of exercises that may be classified as: basics (group drill exercises; similar to kihon in karate), destruction (breaking), hyung (patterns or forms), self-defence, and sparring. Basics, destruction, hyung, and self-defence are similar to equivalent exercises in other traditional martial art schools.


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Execution of a judo throw (ōuchi-gari). The player in blue is being thrown.
Credit: Lance Cpl. Scott M. Biscuiti

Judo, meaning "gentle way", is a modern Japanese martial art (gendai budō) and combat sport, that originated in Japan in the late nineteenth century. Its most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the object is to either throw one's opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue one's opponent with a grappling maneuver, or force an opponent to submit by joint locking the elbow or by applying a choke.

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  • "The ultimate aim of karate lies not in victory nor defeat, but in the perfection of the character of its participants."
-Gichin Funakoshi (1868–1957)
  • "The teaching of one virtuous person can influence many; that which has been learned well by one generation can be passed on to a hundred."
-Kanō Jigorō (1860–1938)
  • "So there are five ways of knowing who will win. Those who know when to fight and when not to fight are victorious. Those who discern when to use many or few troops are victorious. Those whose upper and lower ranks have the same desire are victorious. Those who face the unprepared with preparation are victorious. Those whose generals are able and not constrained by their governments are victorious. These five are the ways to know who will win."
-Sun Tzu (c.544 BC–c.496 BC); The Art of War (trans. by Thomas Cleary)


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