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Portal:London transport

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The London transport portal

London transport
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The London transport system is one of the oldest and largest public transport systems in the world. Many components of its transport system, such as the double-decker bus, the Hackney Carriage black taxi and the London Underground, are internationally recognised symbols of London.

Most transport services in London are controlled by Transport for London (TfL), an executive agency of the Greater London Authority. TfL-controlled services include the London Underground, Docklands Light Railway, the London Overground, Buses and Trams, most of which accept payment by the Oyster card. TfL also administers the congestion charge zone and the low emission zone.

London has a comprehensive rail network with several major railway stations linking to the rest of the country. International travel is possible from two international railway stations at St Pancras International and Stratford International, which connect to mainland Europe through the Eurostar service, or from one of six international airports, including Heathrow or Gatwick.

London is the starting point for a number of motorway routes. The M25 is an orbital motorway which enables vehicles to avoid travelling through central London and is one of the busiest motorways in Europe.

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London low emission zone sign (detail).png
The London low emission zone (LEZ) is a charging scheme that aims to reduce the pollution emissions of diesel-fuelled commercial vehicles in London. Vehicles whose emissions exceed pre-determined levels are charged to enter Greater London. Operation of the low emission zone started operating on 4 February 2008 followed by a phased introduction of an stricter emission standard up to 2012. The scheme is administered by Transport for London (TfL) for the Greater London Authority.

The scheme applies to diesel engine vehicles over 1.205 tonnes, which must be registered with TfL. The scheme does not affect cars or motorcycles. Owners of vehicles that do not meet these requirements must pay a fee of up to £200 with failure to pay resulting in a fine. A limited range of vehicles are exempted or able to obtain a discount from the charge. Payment of the LEZ charge is in addition to any congestion charge required.

Like the congestion charge, the zone is monitored using Automatic Number Plate Reading Cameras to record number plates. Vehicles entering or moving within the zone are checked against the records of the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency to enable TfL to pursue vehicles that have not paid.


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John Rennie (Engineer).jpg
John Rennie (the Elder) (7 June 1761 – 4 October 1821) was a Scottish civil engineer who designed many bridges, canals, and docks. Rennie, a farmer's younger son, was born at Phantassie, near East Linton, East Lothian, Scotland. He showed a taste for mechanics at a very early age. After studying at the University of Edinburgh he worked briefly for James Watt in Staffordshire before moving to London in 1784. In London, he worked first as a a mechanical engineer before setting up his own business in 1791 at Holland Street, Blackfriars and expanding into the designing of civil engineering projects.

Rennie designed many canals, bridges and docks around the United Kingdom and Ireland as well as harbours and lighthouses.

Amongst the projects designed by Rennie in London were previous versions of Vauxhall Bridge, Waterloo Bridge, Southwark Bridge and London Bridge and the London, East India and West India Docks.

After his death, Rennie's sons George and John founded the engineering company J. and G. Rennie.


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