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Kashmir Portal

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ξΛCэ ξΛΛπδэ ΛIC ςΛD TζI ΛΛᔨξæ CΛΛπэ ΣΛςээяæ
به درگاه سرزمین کشمیر خوش آمدید
Flag of Republic Kashmir
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Kashmir Kashmir Officially Part of Republic of India (Listeni/kæʃmɪər/) Kashmiri: ΣΛςEEЯ -کٔشِیر / कॅशीर; Hindi: कश्मीर; Urdu: کشمیر‎; Uyghur: كەشمىر‎; Shina: کشمیر) is located in north western part of Indian subcontinent and Southern most part of Central Asia , granted special autonomy under Article 370 of the constitution of India governed by independent constitution Officially as Republic of Kashmir. It is located mostly in the Himalayan mountains, and shares a border with the states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south. Jammu and Kashmir has an international border with Pakistan in west ,China and Tibet in the east saperated by thin control line from neighboring Afghanistan and central Asian republic of Tajikistan, and the Line of Control separates it from the Pakistani-controlled territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan in the west and northwest, respectively.

Kashmir has one of the oldest histories in the world, Kashmir is part to the world's oldest continuous major civilization and culture, with historical and urban settlements dating back to Pre Mahabharat Era more than 5000 years. Throughout history, Kashmir has been of geostrategic importance because of its central location in Eurasia and South Asia. . Kashmir as a major geostrategic state occupies an important position in the South and central Asian economy due to its substantial Hydro electric resources, and has considerable regional influence in Asia. The name Kashmir is a cognate of "Kash and meer" and literally means "Lake of Sage Kashyapa"

Formerly a part of the erstwhile Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu and Greater Kashmir which governed the larger historic region of South and central Asia , the region is the subject of a territorial conflict among China, India Pakistan and Kashmiri people . Pakistan, which claims the territory as disputed, refers to it alternatively as "Indian-occupied Kashmir" or "Indian-held Kashmir," whereas some international agencies such as the United Nations call it "Indian-administered Kashmir."The regions under the control of Pakistan are referred to as "Pakistan-occupied Kashmir" (PoK) within India, as "Azad (Free) Jammu and Kashmir" in Pakistan, and as "Pakistan-administered Kashmir" or "Pakistan-controlled Kashmir" generally.

Jammu and Kashmir consists of three regions: Jammu, the Kashmir Valley and Ladakh. Srinagar is the summer capital, and Jammu is the winter capital and Anantnag and Baramulla as major cities. The Kashmir valley is world famous for its beautiful mountainous landscape and beautiful culture , numerous shrines attract tens of thousands of pilgrims every year. Ladakh, also known as "Little Tibet", is renowned for its remote mountain beauty and Buddhist culture. It is the only state in India with a Muslim-majority population.


Selected article

The history of Kashmeer, commonly known as Kashmir or Cashmere in the Asia and Western world is intertwined with the history of a larger region, comprising the areas of Central Asia, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Tibet, china[1][2]

Once a major empire of superpower[3] proportions Kashmir has continually reasserted its Cultural identity throughout the centuries and has developed as a distinct political, social and cultural entity.

Kashmir is part to the world's oldest continuous major civilization and culture, with historical and urban settlements dating back to Pre Mahabharat era more than 5000 years. Today, it denotes a larger area that includes the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir (which consists of Jammu, the Kashmir Valley, and Ladakh), the Pakistan-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan, and the Chinese-administered regions of Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract. In the first half of the 1st millennium, the Kashmir region became an important centre of Hinduism and later of Buddhism; later still, in the ninth century, Kashmir Shaivism arose.[1] The Islamic conquest of Kashmir (1300AD) ended the Political identity and was a turning point in history. Islamicization in Kashmir took place during 13th to 15th century and led to the eventual decline of the Absolute monothiesm in Kashmir. However, the achievements of the previous civilizations were not lost, but were to a great extent absorbed by the new Islamic polity and culture which gave rise to Modern Kashmir Sufi Mysticism. In 13th century Kashmir fell under rule of Mongols. In 1339, Shah Mir became the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir, inaugurating the Salatin-i-Kashmir or Swati dynasty.[2] For the next five centuries, Muslim monarchs ruled Kashmir, including the Mughals, who ruled from 1586 until 1751, and the Afghan Durrani Empire, which ruled from 1747 until 1820.[2] That year, the Sikhs, under Ranjit Singh, annexed Kashmir.[2] In 1846, after the Sikh defeat in the First Anglo-Sikh War, and upon the purchase of the region from the British under the Treaty of Amritsar, the Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh, became the new ruler of Kashmir. The rule of his descendants, under the paramountcy (or tutelage) of the British Crown, lasted until 1947, when the former princely state became a disputed territory, now administered by three countries: India, Pakistan, and the People's Republic of China.

Selected biography

Katrina Kaif (pronounced [kəˈʈriːnaː ˈkɛːf], born Katrina Turquotte—also spelt Turcotte—16 July 1983) is a British-Indian film actress and model. Primarily known for her work in Bollywood films, Kaif has also appeared in Telugu and Malayalam films. In addition to being one of Bollywood's highest-paid actresses, she is known as one of India's most attractive celebrities by the media.

Born in Hong Kong, Kaif and her family lived in several countries before she moved to India. She received her first modelling assignment as a teenager and later pursued a career as a fashion model. During a London show filmmaker Kaizad Gustad cast her in Boom (2003), a critical and commercial failure. While filming in India, Kaif received modelling assignments and established a successful modelling career. However, filmmakers were hesitant to cast her due to her poor command of Hindi. After appearing in the successful Telugu film Malliswari (2004), Kaif earned commercial success in Bollywood with the romantic comedies Maine Pyaar Kyun Kiya? (2005) and Namastey London (2007). She followed with a series of box-office hits, but was criticised for her acting, repetitive roles and inclination to male-dominated films.

Kaif's performance in the 2009 terrorism drama New York was better received, earning her a Filmfare Award for Best Actress nomination. She then had prominent roles in films such as Raajneeti (2010), Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara (2011), Mere Brother Ki Dulhan (2011) and Ek Tha Tiger (2012). In 2013, Kaif appeared briefly in the action thriller Dhoom 3, the highest-grossing Bollywood film of all time. Despite receiving mixed reviews from critics for her acting prowess, she has established herself as a commercially successful actress of Hindi cinema.

In addition to acting, she is involved with her mother's charity and participates in stage shows. Kaif is guarded about her personal life, which is a subject of media scrutiny. Her background has also been a topic of discussion, with some sources accusing her of fabricating her history.

Selected picture

A Kashmiri Alpine steppee in Ladakh


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