Portal:Jordan

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Introduction

Flag of Jordan.svg

Jordan (/ˈɔːrdən/; Arabic: الْأُرْدُنّAl-ʾUrdunn [al.ʔur.dunn]), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (Arabic: المملكة الأردنية الهاشميةAl-Mamlakah Al-Urdunnīyah Al-Hāshimīyah), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River. Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north, Israel and Palestine to the west. The Dead Sea lies along its western borders and the country has a small shoreline on the Red Sea in its extreme south-west, but is otherwise landlocked. Jordan is strategically located at the crossroads of Asia, Africa and Europe. The capital, Amman, is Jordan's most populous city as well as the country's economic, political and cultural centre.

What is now Jordan has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period. Three stable kingdoms emerged there at the end of the Bronze Age: Ammon, Moab and Edom. Later rulers include the Nabataean Kingdom, the Roman Empire, and the Ottoman Empire. After the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottomans in 1916 during World War I, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned by Britain and France. The Emirate of Transjordan was established in 1921 by the Hashemite, then Emir, Abdullah I, and the emirate became a British protectorate. In 1946, Jordan became an independent state officially known as the Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan, but was renamed in 1949 to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan after the country captured the West Bank during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and annexed it until it was lost to Israel in 1967. Jordan renounced its claim to the territory in 1988, and became one of two Arab states to have signed a peace treaty with Israel in 1994. Jordan is a founding member of the Arab League and the Organisation of Islamic Co-operation. The country is a constitutional monarchy, but the king holds wide executive and legislative powers.

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Petra Jordan BW 22.JPG
The ancient city of Petra is an archaeological site in Jordan, lying in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Wadi Araba, the great valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. It is famous for having many stone structures carved into the rock.

Petra was built by the Nabataeans, an ancient Semetic people, and is best known for the impressive stone structures such as the treasury (pictured) and the monastery which are carved into the rock in the ancient city. Petra today is a popular tourist site, and was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985.

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Amman at night
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Picture of Amman, the capital of Jordan at nighttime. Amman was named one of the MENA's best cities according to economic, labour, environmental, and socio-cultural factors. It is a major tourist destination in the region and the capital is especially popular among Gulf tourists. Amman is considered one of the richest and most Western-oriented cities in the Middle East.

Selected biography

Abdullah el-Tell
Abdullah el-Tell, (Arabic: عبدالله التل‎, 1918 – 1973) served in the Transjordanian Arab Legion during the 1948 war in Palestine rising from the rank of company commander to become Military Governor of the Old City of Jerusalem. He was later accused of being involved in the assassination of King Abdullah I and spent many years in Egypt before returning to Jordan in 1967.

El-Tell was born into a wealthy family in Irbid just as the Ottoman army were retreating from the town. His mother held him up to the window to witness the soldiers leaving. His secondary education was in Egypt. When he was 18 years old he was jailed for demonstrating against the British.

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Cities of Jordan

Tasks

Jordan topics

Geography Governorates | Nahias | Cities | Dead Sea | Red Sea | Nature reserves | Extreme points
History Nabateans | Hashemites | Islamic Empire | Ottoman Empire | Arab Revolt | Sykes–Picot Agreement | British Mandate for Palestine | Emirate of Transjordan | 1948 Arab–Israeli War | 1967 Arab–Israeli War | 1973 Arab–Israeli War | Israel–Jordan Treaty of Peace | Black September | 2011 Jordanian protests
Demographics and culture Religion (Islam | Christianity | Catholicism | Freedom of religion) | Arabic language | Art | Cinema | Cuisine | Music | Sports | Boy Scouts and Girl Guides | Public holidays
Government and politics The Royal Hashemite Court | Constitution | Kings | Prime Ministers | Cabinet | Parliament | Political parties | Elections | Law enforcement | Foreign affairs | Human rights | Ma'an Movement in Jordan

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