Portal:Infrastructure

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Infrastructure Portal
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Welcome to Wikipedia's infrastructure portal, your gateway to the subject of infrastructure
and its monumental importance for everyday society and the economy.


Infrastructure Portal

State Street Bridge on the Chicago River in Chicago, Illinois.

Infrastructure generally refers to the basic physical structures and facilities, often government-owned, needed for the effective operation of a society or economy. They include the critical assets that are essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions. More specifically, infrastructure facilitates the production of goods and services, the distribution of finished products to markets, and provision of basic social services such as schools and [hospitals. Public works and public capital are common terms for government-owned infrastructure. Examples of such infrastructure assets and facilities include the following:

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Selected article

Active tipping area of an operating landfill in Perth, Western Australia

A landfill site (also known as tip, dump or rubbish dump and historically as a midden), is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment. Historically, landfills have been the most common methods of organized waste disposal and remain so in many places around the world. Landfills may include internal waste disposal sites (where a producer of waste carries out their own waste disposal at the place of production) as well as sites used by many producers. Many landfills are also used for waste management purposes, such as the temporary storage, consolidation and transfer, or processing of waste material (sorting, treatment, or recycling). A landfill also may refer to ground that has been filled in with rocks instead of waste materials, so that it can be used for a specific purpose, such as for building houses. Unless they are stabilized, these areas may experience severe shaking or liquefaction of the ground in a large earthquake.

Typically, in non-hazardous waste landfills, in order to meet predefined specifications, techniques are applied by which the wastes are:

  1. Confined to as small an area as possible.
  2. Compacted to reduce their volume.
  3. Covered (usually daily) with layers of soil.

During landfill operations the waste collection vehicles are weighed at a weighbridge on arrival and their load is inspected for wastes that do not accord with the landfill’s waste acceptance criteria. Afterward, the waste collection vehicles use the existing road network on their way to the tipping face or working front where they unload their load. After loads are deposited, compactors or dozers are used to spread and compact the waste on the working face. Before leaving the landfill boundaries, the waste collection vehicles pass through the wheel cleaning facility. If necessary, they return to the weighbridge in order to be weighed without their load. Through the weighing process, the daily incoming waste tonnage can be calculated and listed in databases. In addition to trucks, some landfills may be equipped to handle railroad containers. The use of 'rail-haul' permits landfills to be located at more remote sites, without the problems associated with many truck trips.

A large number of adverse impacts may occur from landfill operations. These impacts can vary: fatal accidents (e.g., scavengers buried under waste piles); infrastructure damage (e.g., damage to access roads by heavy vehicles); pollution of the local environment (such as contamination of groundwater and/or aquifers by leakage or sinkholes[1] and residual soil contamination during landfill usage, as well as after landfill closure); offgassing of methane generated by decaying organic wastes (methane is a greenhouse gas many times more potent than carbon dioxide, and can itself be a danger to inhabitants of an area); harbouring of disease vectors such as rats and flies, particularly from improperly operated landfills, which are common in developing countries; injuries to wildlife; and simple nuisance problems (e.g., dust, odour, vermin, or noise pollution). Read more...


Selected picture

The new Volokolamskaya station of Moscow Metro system, opened in 2009.


Diagrams

Graphical phases in the life cycle of a facility
Public Vs. Private Provision
Infrastructure Systems
Cash Flow


Selected biography

Henry Conybeare (23 February 1823 – c.1884) was an English civil engineer and Gothic revival architect who designed two notable churches and greatly improved the supply of drinking water to Mumbai. He qualified as an engineer and moved to India while still in his twenties to work on the Bombay Great Eastern Railway project. In 1852, Conybeare produced an influential report to the Bombay Board of Conservancy entitled "Report on the Sanitary State and Sanitary Requirements of Bombay". He became Superintendent of Repairs for Bombay, where his plans for a water-supply scheme were accepted in 1855. The Vihar Lake supplied the first piped water to the city in 1860, and its water-works are still in use today.

Conybeare's work during his later years in Great Britain included:

Cefn Coed Viaduct

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Critical infrastructureBridgeBroadbandBrownfieldsDamsEmergency serviceFloodgateHazardous wasteHospitalIncinerationLandfillLeveeParkPublic healthPublic housingPublic utilityPublic schoolPortRecyclingSolid wasteTelecommunicationsTunnelWaste management

Electrical InfrastructureAlternating currentBatteryDirect currentDemand responseDeregulationDistributionElectrical gridGenerationIndependent Power ProducerLoad managementNatural monopolyPower outagePower plantRegional transmission organizationSmart gridSubstationTransformerTransmission system operatorTransmission

Energy infrastructureBiofuelCarbon footprintCoal productionEnergy efficiencyEnergy lawEthanol fuelFossil fuelHydropowerKyoto ProtocolNuclear powerOil refineryPhotovoltaicsPollutionRenewable energyStorageWind power

Transportation infrastructureAviationAirlineAirportBargeBusCargoCommuter railControlled-access highwayFerryFreightHighwayInter-city railIntermodal freight transportJust-in-time (business)Limited-access roadLock (water navigation)LogisticsPublic transportRail transportRapid transitRight-of-wayShippingSupply chainTransport

Water infrastructureCombined sewerDiffuserDrinking waterGroundwaterMacerationPipeReverse osmosisSeptic tankSewageSewage treatmentSewage collection and disposalSewer overflowSewage pumpingStormwaterSurface waterSurface runoffWastewaterWater pollutionWater supplyWater treatmentWater tower


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  1. ^ "Five years on, east Pasco landfill proposal still in dispute". Tampa Tribune. July 8, 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-13. 
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