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Scene from the epic Mahabharata

Haryana /ˌhɑːriˈɑːnə/ is a state in India. Constituted in 1966, it is one of two newly created states carved out of the greater Punjab province as a means of creating a stronger national identity. It has been a part of the Kuru region in North India. The name Haryana is found mentioned in the 12th century AD by the apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar (VS 1189-1230). It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and by Rajasthan to the west and south. The river Yamuna defines its eastern border with Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh. Haryana also surrounds Delhi on three sides, forming the northern, western and southern borders of Delhi. Consequently, a large area of Haryana is included in the National Capital Region. The capital of the state is Chandigarh which is administered as a union territory and is also the capital of Punjab.

Sites in Haryana were part of the Indus Valley and Vedic Civilizations. Several decisive battles were fought in the area, which shaped much of the history of India. These include the epic battle of Mahabharata at Kurukshetra mentioned in the Hindu mythology (including the recital of the Bhagavad Gita by Krishna), and the three battles of Panipat. Haryana was administered as part of the Punjab province of British India, and was carved out on linguistic lines as India's 17th state in 1966. Haryana is now a leading contributor to the country's production of foodgrain and milk. Agriculture is the leading occupation for the residents of the state, the flat arable land irrigated by submersible pumps and an extensive canal system. Haryana contributed heavily to the Green Revolution that made India self-sufficient in food production in the 1960s.

Haryana is one of the wealthiest states of India and has the third highest per capita income in the country at Rs. 67,891, including the largest number of rural crorepatis in India. Haryana is also one of the most economically developed regions in South Asia and its agricultural and manufacturing industry has experienced sustained growth since the 1970s. Since 2000, the state has emerged as the largest recipient of investment per capita in India.

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The battle of Panipat and the death of Sultan Ibrāhīm, the last of the Lōdī Sultans of Delhi

The first battle of Panipat took place in Northern India, and marked the beginning of the Mughal Empire. This was one of the earliest battles involving gunpowder firearms and field artillery. In 1526, the Mughal forces of Babur, the Timurid ruler of Kabulistan, defeated the much larger ruling army of Ibrahim Lodi, Sultan of Delhi. The battle was fought on 21 April near the small village of Panipat, in the present day Indian state of Haryana, an area that has been the site of a number of decisive battles for the control of Northern India since the twelfth century. It is estimated that Babur's forces numbered around 15,000 men and had between 20 to 24 pieces of field artillery. Babur estimated Lodi had around 100,000 men, though that number included camp followers, while the fighting force was around 30,000 to 40,000 men in total, along with at least 100 war elephants. Lodi's army was mostly Hindus although he and his dynasty was Muslim of Pashtun ethnic background.

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Toll plaza of Delhi Gurgaon Expressway.

Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway is a 28 km (17 mi) long access-controlled toll expressway connecting New Delhi, the national capital of India, and Gurgaon, an important satellite city of Haryana. The expressway is a part of the Golden Quadrilateral project, which itself is a part of the National Highway Development Project (NHDP) and emphasizes improving road connectivity between four metropolitan cities of India, namely Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata by developing 4–6 lane highways between them. The much-delayed 10 billion (US$156.6 million), 27.7 km (17.2 mi) expressway was thrown open on January 23, 2008. It has helped reduce the travel time of hundreds of thousands of commuters and international air passengers. Vehicle users have to pay a toll for using the expressway, which is collected at three points, near the Indira Gandhi International Airport, the Delhi-Gurgaon Border and the 42nd Milestone.

Selected biography

Manandeep Singh

Manandeep Singh (born 1992) is an Indian football player. He is currently playing for Air India FC in the I-League as a Forward. He played for Indian Arrows in the I-League for the 2010-11 season. During the summer of 2011 Singh signed with Air India FC which also plays in the I-League. He scored his first two goals on his debut with the club on November 1, 2011 against defending champions Salgaocar. He then continued his scoring run on November 6, 2011 against Chirag United Club Kerala, converting from the penalty spot. He scored twice for Air India on 26 March 2012 against Mohun Bagan. Singh played his first match for India U-23 against Qatar U-23 on June 23, 2011 coming on as a substitute for C. S. Sabeeth. He made his senior international debut against Oman on the 23 February 2012 where India lost 5-1.

In the news

In the news
  • June 25:Haryana to soon make it mandatory for all new residential, commercial and industrial sectors to achieve zero wastage of water. (The Times of India)



Selected panorama

Yamuna river near the Haryana border.
Credit: Thorsten Vieth

The Yamuna (Sanskrit : यमुना , Urdu :جمنا sometimes called Jamuna Bengali:যমুনা Jomuna and Hindi : जमुना) or Jumna) is the largest tributary river of the Ganges (Ganga) in northern India. Originating from the Yamunotri Glacier at a height 6,387 metres, on the south western slopes of Banderpooch peaks, in the Lower Himalayas in Uttarakhand, it travels a total length of 1,376 kilometers (855 mi) and has a drainage system of 366,223 km2, 40.2% of the entire Ganges Basin, before merging with the Ganges at Triveni Sangam, Allahabad, the site for the Kumbha Mela every twelve years.

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