Portal:German Empire

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German Empire

Wappen Deutsches Reich - Reichsadler 1889.svg
Flag of the German Empire.svg

The German Empire (German: Deutsches Kaiserreich), officially the German Reich, was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in November 1918, when Germany became a federal republic.

The German Empire consisted of 27 constituent territories, with most being ruled by royal families. This included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, six duchies (five after 1876), seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, and one imperial territory. Although the Kingdom of Prussia contained most of the Empire's population and territory, it played a lesser role.

After 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron (and later steel), chemicals, and railways. In 1871 it had a population of 41 million people, and by 1913 this had increased to 68 million. A heavily rural collection of states in 1815, the united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire operated as an industrial, technological, and scientific giant, gaining more Nobel Prizes in science than any other country.

Selected article

Algeciras Conference

The Algeciras Conference of 1906 took place in Algeciras, Spain, and lasted from 16 January to 7 April. The purpose of the conference was to find a solution to the First Moroccan Crisis of 1905 between France and the German Empire, which arose as Germany attempted to prevent France from establishing a protectorate over Morocco in what was known as the Tangier Crisis.

Britain and France's Entente Cordiale of 1904 had defined diplomatic cooperation between them and recognized British authority over Egypt and French control in Morocco (with some Spanish concessions). Germany saw this development putting an end to the rivalry between Britain and France, which would further isolate Germany in European affairs.

On 31 March 1905, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany visited Morocco's capital, Tangier, and delivered a sabre-rattling speech calling for an international conference to ensure Morocco's independence. German diplomats believed they could convince U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt to challenge French intervention in Morocco. Roosevelt — at that time mediating the Russo-Japanese War, and aware of the U.S. Senate's stance to avoid involvement in European affairs — was disinclined to become involved in the Moroccan crisis. However, with the situation in June 1905 worsening to the point of war between Germany and France (and possibly Britain), in July Roosevelt persuaded the French to attend a January peace conference in Algeciras.

Selected biography

Victoria, Crown Princess of Prussia. Portrait by Albert Gräfle, 1863.

Victoria, Princess Royal (Victoria Adelaide Mary Louisa; 21 November 1840 – 5 August 1901) was German Empress and Queen of Prussia by marriage to German Emperor Frederick III. She was the eldest child of Queen Victoria of Great Britain and Ireland and Prince Albert, and was created Princess Royal in 1841. She was the mother of Wilhelm II, German Emperor.

Educated by her father in a highly politically liberal attitude, she was betrothed at the age of sixteen to the Prince Frederick of Prussia, and supported him in his views that Prussia and the later German Empire would become a constitutional monarchy on the British model. Criticized for this attitude and her English origins, Victoria suffered the ostracism of the Hohenzollerns and the Berlin court. This isolation increased after the arrival of Otto von Bismarck (one of her most staunch political opponents) to power in 1862.

Selected picture

Berliner Stadtschloss
The Stadtschloss with the National Memorial to emperor Wilhelm I, around 1900

Did you know?

Football at the 1912 Summer Olympics - German squad.jpg
  • ...that Pickelhauben were popular targets for Allied souvenir hunters during the early months of the war? The spiked helmet remained part of a clichéd mental picture of Imperial Germany as late as the inter-war period even after the actual headdress had ceased to be worn.

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Topics

Chronologie of the German Empire
Genesis (1870-1871) :
Affirmation :

German East Africa WWI Patriotic Kolonialkriegerdank donation postcard. "Askari from German East Africa"

Demise (1918-1919) :
Military

Pickelhaube

Deutsches Heer
Kaiserliche Marine
Luftstreitkräfte • Zeppelin
Arts and Culture
Scientists (Nobel Prize)

Adolf von Baeyer

Chemistry : Hermann Emil Fischer (1902), Adolf von Baeyer (1905), Eduard Buchner (1907), Wilhelm Ostwald (1909), Otto Wallach (1910), Richard Martin Willstätter (1915), Fritz Haber (1918)
Physics : Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1901), Philipp Lenard (1905), Ferdinand Braun (1909), Wilhelm Wien (1911), Max von Laue (1914), Max Planck (1918)
Physiology and medicine : Emil Adolf von Behring (1901), Robert Koch (1905), Paul Ehrlich (1908), Albrecht Kossel (1910)
Archeology : Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft, German Archaeological Institute, Ernst Curtius, Robert Koldewey, Wilhelm Dörpfeld, Heinrich Schliemann, Ludwig Borchardt, Gustaf Kossinna
Economy
Friedrich Alfred Krupp, Hermann Gruson, Friedrich Bayer, Werner von Siemens
Konzern, Krupp Ag, Rheinmetall, Thyssen, AG Vulcan Stettin, Germaniawerft
Politics
Constitution of the German Empire • German monarchs • Reichstag (Reichstag building), Bundesrat • Reichskanzler
  • Political parties
Social democratic: SPD • SAPD • USPD
Political Catholic : Zentrum
Liberal : NLP • FVP • FSV • DFP
Conservative : DKP • DRP
Symbols
Flag of the German Empire • Germania

States of the German Empire

Kingdoms

Grand Duchies

Duchies

Principalities

Free and Hanseatic Cities

Imperial Territories

Colonies of the German Empire

The German colonial empire (German: Deutsches Kolonialreich) constituted the overseas colonies, dependencies and territories of Imperial Germany. Short-lived attempts of colonization by individual German states had occurred in preceding centuries, but crucial colonial efforts only began in 1884 with the Scramble for Africa. Germany lost control when World War I began in 1914 and its colonies were seized by its enemies in the first weeks of the war. However some military units held out for a while longer: German South-West Africa surrendered in 1915, Kamerun in 1916 and German East Africa only in 1918 by end of the war. Germany's colonial empire was officially confiscated with the Treaty of Versailles after Germany's defeat in the war and the various units became League of Nations mandates under the supervision (but not ownership) of one of the victorious powers.

Proposed Coat of Arms New Guinea 1914.png
Proposed Coat of Arms Samoa 1914.png
Proposed Coat of Arms Southwest Africa 1914.png
Proposed Coat of Arms Cameroon 1914.png
Proposed Coat of Arms Togo 1914.png
Proposed Coat of Arms East Africa 1914.png
German New Guinea German Samoa German South-West Africa Kamerun Togoland German East Africa

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