Portal:German Empire

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German Empire

Wappen Deutsches Reich - Reichsadler 1889.svg
Flag of the German Empire.svg

The German Empire (German: Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich), was the German nation state that existed from the Unification of Germany in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918.

The German Empire consisted of 26 states, most of them ruled by noble families. They included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies (six before 1876), seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, and one imperial territory. Although Prussia was one of several kingdoms in the realm, it contained about two thirds of Germany's population and territory.

After 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron (and later steel), chemicals, and railways. In 1871, Germany had a population of 41 million people; by 1913, this had increased to 68 million. A heavily rural collection of states in 1815, the now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire was an industrial, technological, and scientific giant, gaining more Nobel Prizes in science than any other country.

Selected article

Spartacist militia in Berlin

The German Revolution or November Revolution (German: Novemberrevolution) was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of Germany's imperial government with a republic. The revolutionary period lasted from November 1918 until the establishment in August 1919 of a republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic.

The roots of the revolution lay in the German Empire's defeat in the First World War and the social tensions that came to a head shortly thereafter. The first acts of revolution were triggered by the policies of the German Supreme Command and its lack of coordination with the Naval Command. In the face of defeat, the Naval Command insisted on trying to precipitate a climactic battle with the British Royal Navy by means of its naval order of 24 October 1918. The battle never took place. Instead of obeying their orders to begin preparations to fight the British, German sailors led a revolt in the naval ports of Wilhelmshaven on 29 October 1918, followed by the Kiel mutiny in the first days of November. These disturbances spread the spirit of civil unrest across Germany and ultimately led to the proclamation of a republic on 9 November 1918. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Wilhelm II abdicated his throne and fled the country.

Selected biography

Hermann Detzner

Hermann Detzner (16 October 1882 – 1 December 1970) was an officer in the German colonial security force (Schutztruppe) in Kamerun (Cameroon) and German New Guinea, as well as a surveyor, an engineer, an adventurer, and a writer. In early 1914, the German government sent Detzner to explore and chart the interior of Kaiser-Wilhelmsland, the imperial protectorate on the island of New Guinea. When World War I broke out in Europe, he was well into the interior and without radio contact. He refused to surrender to Australian troops when they occupied German New Guinea, concealing himself in the jungle with a band of approximately 20 soldiers. For four years, Detzner and his troops provocatively marched through the bush, singing "Watch on the Rhine" and flying the German Imperial flag. He led at least one expedition from the Huon Peninsula to the north coast, and a second by a mountain route, to attempt an escape to the neutral Dutch colony to the west. He explored areas of the New Guinean interior formerly unseen by Europeans and surrendered in full dress uniform, flying the Imperial flag, to Australian forces in January 1919.

Selected images

Did you know?

Football at the 1912 Summer Olympics - German squad.jpg
  • ...that Pickelhauben were popular targets for Allied souvenir hunters during the early months of the war? The spiked helmet remained part of a clichéd mental picture of Imperial Germany as late as the inter-war period even after the actual headdress had ceased to be worn.

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Topics

Chronologie of the German Empire
Genesis (1870-1871) :
Affirmation :

German East Africa WWI Patriotic Kolonialkriegerdank donation postcard. "Askari from German East Africa"

Demise (1918-1919) :
Military

Pickelhaube

Deutsches Heer
Kaiserliche Marine
Luftstreitkräfte • Zeppelin
Arts and Culture
Scientists (Nobel Prize)

Adolf von Baeyer

Chemistry : Hermann Emil Fischer (1902), Adolf von Baeyer (1905), Eduard Buchner (1907), Wilhelm Ostwald (1909), Otto Wallach (1910), Richard Martin Willstätter (1915), Fritz Haber (1918)
Physics : Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1901), Philipp Lenard (1905), Ferdinand Braun (1909), Wilhelm Wien (1911), Max von Laue (1914), Max Planck (1918)
Physiology and medicine : Emil Adolf von Behring (1901), Robert Koch (1905), Paul Ehrlich (1908), Albrecht Kossel (1910)
Archeology : Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft, German Archaeological Institute, Ernst Curtius, Robert Koldewey, Wilhelm Dörpfeld, Heinrich Schliemann, Ludwig Borchardt, Gustaf Kossinna
Economy
Friedrich Alfred Krupp, Hermann Gruson, Friedrich Bayer, Werner von Siemens
Konzern, Krupp Ag, Rheinmetall, Thyssen, AG Vulcan Stettin, Germaniawerft
Zollverein
Politics
Constitution of the German Empire • German monarchs • Reichstag (Reichstag building), Bundesrat • Reichskanzler (list)
  • Political parties
Social democratic: SPD • SAPD • USPD
Political Catholic : Zentrum
Liberal : NLP • FVP • FSV • DFP
Conservative : DKP • DRP
Symbols
Flag of the German Empire • Germania

States of the German Empire

Kingdoms

Grand Duchies

Duchies

Principalities

Free and Hanseatic Cities

Imperial Territories

Colonies of the German Empire

The German colonial empire (German: Deutsches Kolonialreich) constituted the overseas colonies, dependencies and territories of Imperial Germany. Short-lived attempts of colonization by individual German states had occurred in preceding centuries, but crucial colonial efforts only began in 1884 with the Scramble for Africa. Germany lost control when World War I began in 1914 and its colonies were seized by its enemies in the first weeks of the war. However some military units held out for a while longer: German South-West Africa surrendered in 1915, Kamerun in 1916 and German East Africa only in 1918 by end of the war. Germany's colonial empire was officially confiscated with the Treaty of Versailles after Germany's defeat in the war and the various units became League of Nations mandates under the supervision (but not ownership) of one of the victorious powers.

Proposed Coat of Arms New Guinea 1914.png
Proposed Coat of Arms Samoa 1914.png
Proposed Coat of Arms Southwest Africa 1914.png
Proposed Coat of Arms Cameroon 1914.png
Proposed Coat of Arms Togo 1914.png
Proposed Coat of Arms East Africa 1914.png
German New Guinea German Samoa German South-West Africa Kamerun Togoland German East Africa

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