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Portal:Fish

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Introduction

Giant grouper swimming among schools of other fish

Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates, together forming the olfactores. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods (i.e., the amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals which all descended from within the same ancestry). Because in this manner the term "fish" is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology. The traditional term pisces (also ichthyes) is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification.

The earliest organisms that can be classified as fish were soft-bodied chordates that first appeared during the Cambrian period. Although they lacked a true spine, they possessed notochords which allowed them to be more agile than their invertebrate counterparts. Fish would continue to evolve through the Paleozoic era, diversifying into a wide variety of forms. Many fish of the Paleozoic developed external armor that protected them from predators. The first fish with jaws appeared in the Silurian period, after which many (such as sharks) became formidable marine predators rather than just the prey of arthropods.

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Visualization of a Harvest Control Rule (HCR)
Overfishing occurs when fishing activities reduce fish stocks below an acceptable level. This can occur in any body of water from a pond to the oceans. More precise biological and bioeconomic terms define 'acceptable level'.

Biological overfishing occurs when fishing mortality has reached a level where the stock biomass has negative marginal growth (slowing down biomass growth), as indicated by the red area in the figure. (Fish are being taken out of the water so quickly that the replenishment of stock by breeding slows down. If the replenishment continues to slow down for long enough, replenishment will go into reverse and the population will decrease.)

Economic or bioeconomic overfishing additionally considers the cost of fishing and defines overfishing as a situation of negative marginal growth of resource rent. (Fish are being taken out of the water so quickly that the growth in the profitability of fishing slows down. If this continues for long enough, profitability will decrease.)

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Flussneunauge.jpg
A lamprey (sometimes also called lamprey eel) is a jawless fish with a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth, with which most species bore into the flesh of other fish to suck their blood. In zoology, lampreys are often not considered to be true fish because of their vastly different morphology and physiology.

Lampreys begin life as burrowing freshwater larvae (ammocoetes). At this stage, they are toothless, have rudimentary eyes, and feed on microorganisms. This larval stage can last five to seven years and hence was originally thought to be an independent organism. After these five to seven years, they transform into adults in a metamorphosis which is at least as radical as that seen in amphibians, and which involves a radical rearrangement of internal organs, development of eyes and transformation from a mud-dwelling filter feeder into an efficient swimming predator, which typically moves into the sea to begin a predatory/parasitic life, attaching to a fish by their mouths, secreting an anticoagulant to the host, and feeding on the blood and tissues of the host. In most species this phase lasts about 18 months. Whether lampreys are predators or parasites is a blurred question.

Did you know...

  • Liposarcus multiradiatus 01 ssj 20050321.jpg
    ...that the Loricariidae or the suckermouth catfish from Central and South America is the largest family of catfish, with almost 700 species and new species being described each year?
  • King of herrings.png
    ...that the king of herrings (Regalecus glesne), an oarfish of the family Regalecidae, is the world's longest bony fish with a length of 41 feet (12 m)?
  • ...that the yoyo loach (Botia almorhae) from India and Pakistan is named for their black and white patterns, which often can be seen to spell "yoyo" especially in younger specimens?
  • Sillago parvisquamis.jpg
    ...that studies of the inshore marine fish small-scale whiting (Sillago parvisquamis) suggest the female starts life smaller than the male, but grows faster and is larger than the male within two years?
  • ... that the cream-spotted cardinalfish is the sole member of the new genus Ozichthys?

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The Fish Quiz

The Fish Quiz is a friendly quiz competition designed to test your general knowledge of fish. The current game is Fish Quiz Tournament X. You can read more and join the game here.

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"Fish and guests in three days are stale."

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The Fish Portal: Mini Edition

The Mini Edition of the Fish Portal is available for you to use on your wikipedia user page or talk page. It uses minimum space but retains many crucial features of the portal. To use it, place {{Portal:Fish/Mini portal}} on the designated page. See here for an example of the mini portal on a user page.

Topics

Ichthyology : Fish anatomy, Fish development, Fish diseases, Fish locomotion, Fish migration, Ichthyology terms, Limnology, Marine biology, Meristics, Oceanography, Spawning
Taxa : Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii, Sarcopterygii, Chondrostei, Neopterygii, Holostei, Teleostei, Osteoglossomorpha, Elopomorpha, Clupeomorpha, Ostariophysi, Cyclosquamata, Scopelomorpha, Lampridiomorpha, Polymyxiomorpha, Paracanthopterygii, Acanthopterygii
Fishery : Angling, Aquaculture, Fishing, Fish as food, Fish farming, Fish market, Fisheries management, Fishing industry, Overfishing
Food fish : Anchovy, Barb, Basa fish, Bass, Carp, Catfish, Cod, Eel, Flatfish, Goby, Gourami, Haddock, Herring, Mackerel, Oily fish, Perch, Pollock, Salmon, Snapper, Snakehead, Sturgeon, Tilapia, Trout, Tuna, Whitefish
Fishkeeping : Aeration, Aquarium, Fish food, Marine aquarium, Reef aquarium, Brackish water aquarium
Ornamental fish : Angelfish(freshwater), Angelfish(marine), Barb, Blenny, Boxfish, Butterflyfish, Cichlid, Chromis, Clownfish, Corydoras, Damsel, Danio, Discus, Goby, Goldfish, Gourami, Koi, Lionfish[disambiguation needed], Live-bearer, Loach, Mbuna, Rainbowfish, Pufferfish, Rasbora, Seahorse, Siamese fighting fish, Suckermouth catfish, Tang, Tetra, Triggerfish, Wrasse
Others : Amphibious fish, Electric fish, Deep sea fish, Ichthys, Mermaid, Prehistoric fish, Ray, Shark, Walking fish

Things you can do

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Here are some tasks you can do, as organized by the WikiProject Fishes, if you are interested, please sign up on the project page.

  • Copyedit:
  • Expand: Barb (fish species), fishing industry, Greater Argentine, Gold Spot Pleco, Fish anatomy, Black goby, Poecilia caucana, Arrowtooth flounder, Paiute cutthroat trout, Serrasalmus, Pygocentrus, Greater pipefish, Lesser pipefish
  • Develop featured article:
  • Peer review: Spring cavefish, Convict cichlid, Hoplosternum littorale, Shortnose sturgeon
  • Article requests: Missing topics about Fish, Devonian Fish Project article requests, Jörg Freyhof
  • Picture request: Phreatobius cisternarum, Glandulocaudinae, Chaca (genus), Firewood catfish, Cetopsidae, Cranoglanis, Scoloplax, Nematogenys inermis, Austroglanis, Astroblepus, Pseudopimelodidae, Chiapas catfish (Upload any non-copyrighted fish images to the appropriate section of Wikimedia Commons)
  • Identify images: Identify and move the images to the appropriate section of Wikimedia Commons
  • Collaboration: Pacific jack mackerel (edit | talk | history | protect | delete | links | watch | logs | views)
  • Assessment: Assess the quality and importance of fish articles
  • Other: Expand Fish anatomy and Fish locomotion, Create articles for the missing superfamilies and families in the Perciformes. Merge GLAM/ARKive donated texts into articles about endangered species.
  • If you have any question, comment or suggestion, please discussion here.

    view edit discusshistorywatch

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