Portal:Fascism

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The Fascism Portal

The flag of the National Fascist Party of Italy bearing the fasces, the namesake of fascism

Fascism is a political authoritarian nationalist political ideology. Fascists seek to unify their nation based on commitment to an organic national community where its individuals are united together as one people through national identity. The unity of the nation is to be based upon suprapersonal connections of ancestry and culture through a totalitarian state that seeks the mass mobilization of the national community through discipline, physical training, and sometimes eugenics. Such a state is led by a strong leader—such as a dictator and a martial government composed of the members of the governing fascist party—to forge national unity and maintain a stable and orderly society. Fascism rejects assertions that violence is automatically negative in nature and views political violence, war and imperialism as means that can achieve national rejuvenation. Fascists advocate a mixed economy, with the principal goal of achieving autarky through protectionist and interventionist economic policies. Frequently, fascism seeks to eradicate perceived foreign influences that are deemed to be causing degeneration of the nation or of not fitting into the national culture. The limiting of the spectrum of acceptable opinion includes the aggressive suppression of dissent.

Neo-fascism is a post–World War II ideology that includes significant elements of fascism. Neo-fascism usually includes ultranationalism, populism, anti-immigration policies or, where relevant, nativism, anti-communism, anti-socialism, anti-Marxism, anti-anarchism and opposition to the parliamentary system and liberal democracy. Allegations that a group is neo-fascist may be hotly contested, especially if the term is used as a political epithet. Some post–World War II regimes have been described as neo-fascist due to their authoritarian nature, and sometimes due to their fascination with and sympathy towards fascist ideology and rituals.

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The Italian Social Republic, informally known as the Republic of Salò, was a puppet state with limited recognition that was created during the later part of World War II, existing from the beginning of German occupation of Italy in September 1943 until surrender of German troops in Italy in May 1945. The Italian Social Republic was the second and last incarnation of the Italian Fascist state and was led by Duce Benito Mussolini and his reformed anti-monarchist Republican Fascist Party which tried to modernise and revise fascist doctrine into a more moderate and sophisticated direction. The state declared Rome its capital, but was de facto centered on Salò (hence its colloquial name), a small town on Lake Garda, near Brescia, where Mussolini and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs were headquartered. The Italian Social Republic exercised nominal sovereignty in Northern and Central Italy, but was largely dependent on German troops to maintain control.

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Hitler and Mussolini

Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany and Benito Mussolini of Fascist Italy, two of the Axis leaders of World War II, stand together before one of the Honor Temples of Königsplatz, Munich, sending off their armies to North Africa and into Egypt against the British Army as part of the Western Desert Campaign. The two leaders wear the political uniforms of their respective parties while Mussolini delivers a Roman salute. Hitler modelled Nazism after Mussolini's Italian Fascism, and based his public image and leadership style on Mussolini's.

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Benito Mussolini
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  • 7 July 2009: Scotland Yard voices fears of a terrorist attack from the far right.[1]
  • 3 July 2009: A German court declares 89-year-old John Demjanjuk fit to stand trial.[2]
  • 28 June 2009: On Croatia's national anti-fascism day, President Stjepan Mesić delivers a warning about the rise in sympathy for the Ustasha state.[3]
  • 27 June 2009: Nine former Nazi SS officers are sentenced to life imprisonment for a World War II massacre in Italy.[4]
  • 17 June 2009: Michela Vittoria Brambilla, the tourism minister of Italy, is accused of delivering a Roman salute.[5]
  • 15 June 2009: The Italian National Guard, a vigilante group set to begin foot patrols in Northern Italy, causes controversy when it unveils its uniform in Milan, which is seen as similar to that of the blackshirts.[6]

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RFP (Russian Fascist Party) Blackshirts at Harbin Station, 1934

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