Portal:Discrimination

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Introduction

In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction towards, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong. These include age, colour, convictions for which a pardon has been granted or a record suspended, height, disability, ethnicity, family status, gender identity, genetic characteristics, marital status, nationality, race, religion, sex, and sexual orientation. Discrimination consists of treatment of an individual or group, based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or social category, "in a way that is worse than the way people are usually treated". It involves the group's initial reaction or interaction going on to influence the individual's actual behavior towards the group leader or the group, restricting members of one group from opportunities or privileges that are available to another group, leading to the exclusion of the individual or entities based on illogical or irrational decision making.

Discriminatory traditions, policies, ideas, practices and laws exist in many countries and institutions in every part of the world, including in territories where discrimination is generally looked down upon. In some places, controversial attempts such as quotas have been used to benefit those who are believed to be current or past victims of discrimination—but they have sometimes been called reverse discrimination.

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Ketuanan Melayu (Malay for "Malay supremacy") is the system of constitutionally guaranteed special rights to ethnic Malays, and other indigenous ethnic groups collectively known as bumiputra, in Malaysia. These special privileges are set out in Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia. This quid pro quo arrangement is usually referred to as the Malaysian social contract. The concept of ketuanan Melayu is usually referenced by politicians, particularly those from the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), the most influential political party in Malaysia. Although the idea itself predates Malaysian independence, the phrase ketuanan Melayu did not come into vogue until the early 2000s.

The idea of Malay supremacy gained attention in the 1940s, when the Malays organized themselves to protest the Malayan Union's establishment (and later fought for independence). The Union intended to grant Malaysian citizenship to all existing residents, which included a predominant number of recently-immigrated Singaporeans who had gained significant wealth during Malaysia's industrialization. The system of "special rights" were geared to ensure Malay influence over the country of Malaysia.

The portions of the Constitution related to ketuanan Melayu were "entrenched" after the racial riots of May 13, 1969. This period also saw the rise of "ultras" who advocated a one-party government led by UMNO, and an increased emphasis on the Malays being the "definitive people" of Malaysia.

The most vocal opposition towards the concept has come from non-Malay-based parties, such as the Democratic Action Party (DAP); although pre-independence, the Straits Chinese also agitated against it. During the 2000s politicians began stressing ketuanan Melayu again, and publicly chastised government ministers who questioned the social contract.

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Suffragette,-Emily-Wi.jpg

Cover of the June 13, 1913[1] issue of The Suffragette, a British women's suffrage newsletter. The cover shows an etching of feminist activist Emily Wilding Davison, who was trampled to death the week before while crossing the track of the Epsom Derby in what was either a publicity stunt or a suicide.

Suffragette was the second official paper of the Women's Social and Political Union, edited by WSPU founder Christabel Pankhurst. It replaced the paper Votes for Women when the WSPU became more militant in 1912.

Certain classes of women gained the right to vote in the UK in 1918, and universal suffrage was granted in 1925.

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