Portal:Crusades

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
THE CRUSADES PORTAL

Introduction

 Medieval illustration of a battle during the Second Crusade
A battle of the Second Crusade (illustration of William of Tyre's Histoire d'Outremer, 1337)

The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The most commonly known Crusades were the campaigns in the Eastern Mediterranean aimed at recovering the Holy Land from Muslim rule. The term "Crusades" is also applied to other church-sanctioned campaigns, such as Albigensian Crusade against the Cathars or the Baltic Crusades. These were fought for a variety of reasons including the suppression of paganism and heresy, the resolution of conflict among rival Roman Catholic groups, or for political and territorial advantage.

In 1095, Pope Urban II called for the First Crusade in a sermon at the Council of Clermont. He encouraged military support for the Byzantine Empire and its Emperor, Alexios I, who needed reinforcements for his conflict with westward migrating Turks colonizing Anatolia. One of Urban's aims was to guarantee pilgrims access to the Eastern Mediterranean holy sites that were under Muslim control but scholars disagree as to whether this was the primary motive for Urban or those who heeded his call. Urban's strategy may have been to unite the Eastern and Western branches of Christendom, which had been divided since the East–West Schism of 1054 and to establish himself as head of the unified Church. The initial success of the Crusade established the first four Crusader states in the Eastern Mediterranean: the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the County of Tripoli. The enthusiastic response to Urban's preaching from all classes in Western Europe established a precedent for other Crusades. Volunteers became Crusaders by taking a public vow and receiving plenary indulgences from the Church. Some were hoping for a mass ascension into heaven at Jerusalem or God's forgiveness for all their sins. Others participated to satisfy feudal obligations, to obtain glory and honour or to seek economic and political gain. The two-century attempt to recover the Holy Land ended in failure. Following the First Crusade there were six major Crusades and numerous less significant ones. After the last Catholic outposts fell in 1291 there were a number of abortive attempts such as the Nicopolis Crusade of 1395.

The Wendish Crusade and those of the Archbishop of Bremen brought all the North-East Baltic and the tribes of Mecklenburg and Lusatia under Catholic control in the late 12th century. In the early 13th century the Teutonic Order created a Crusader state in Prussia and the French monarchy used the Albigensian Crusade to extend the kingdom to the Mediterranean Sea. The rise of the Ottoman Empire in the late 14th century prompted a Catholic response which led to further defeats at Nicopolis in 1396 and Varna in 1444. Catholic Europe was in chaos and the final pivot of Christian–Islamic relations was marked by two seismic events: the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 and a final conclusive victory for the Spanish over the Moors with the conquest of Granada in 1492. The idea of Crusading continued, not least in the form of the Knights Hospitaller, until the end of the 18th century but the focus of Western European interest moved to the New World.

Selected article

The Reconquista (a Spanish and Portuguese word for "Reconquest") was a period of 750 years in which several Christian kingdoms reconquered territory Iberian Peninsula from the invader Muslim states of Al-Andalus (Arabic الأندلس, al-andalus).

The Christian rulers widely proclaimed that they were re-conquering Christian territory previously lost to Muslim invaders. This ensured that Christian reinforcements would continue to arrive from other Christian realms, especially because the Papacy in Rome continued to support such efforts.

In reality the situation was much more nuanced and complicated. Christian or Muslim rulers would, from time to time, fight amongst themselves and even support certain rulers of the 'other side'. Peace treaties would be signed, reinforced through marriage, and broken on occasion. Blurring the sides even further were groups of mercenaries who disregarded the religious sides on several occasions, fighting simply for whomever paid them better.

The Battle of Covadonga in 722 is considered the official beginning of the Reconquista.

The Portuguese Reconquista ended in 1249 with the conquest of the Algarve (Arabic الغرب — Al-gharb) under Afonso III, the first Portuguese monarch to claim the title "King of Portugal and the Algarve".

Selected biography

Vlad III the Impaler
Vlad III the Impaler, Prince of Wallachia called "Vlad the Impaler" (that is, Vlad Țepeș, Romanian pronunciation: [ˈt͡sepeʃ] in Romanian; also known as Vlad Dracula or simply Dracula, in Romanian Drăculea; 1431 – December 1476), was a Wallachian (southern Romania) voivode. His three reigns were in 1448, 1456–1462, and 1476. Vlad the Impaler is known for the exceedingly cruel punishments he imposed during his reign. In the English-speaking world, Vlad III is best known for inspiring the name of the eponymous vampire in Bram Stoker's 1897 novel Dracula.[1]

As prince, Vlad maintained an independent policy in relation to the Ottoman Empire[2] and a defender of Wallachia against Ottoman expansionism.

Did you know...

Peirol from a 14th-century chansonnier.

Selected images

Categories

WikiProjects

Topics

The Crusades

Background: PilgrimageHoly LandChurch of the Holy SepulchreGreat German Pilgrimage of 1064–65Theology of sacred violenceBattle of ManzikertCouncil of PiacenzaCouncil of ClermontJihad

Realms and dynasties: Great Seljuq EmpireFatimid CaliphateKingdom of JerusalemPrincipality of AntiochCounty of TripoliCounty of EdessaKingdom of CyprusArmenian Kingdom of CiliciaVassals of the Kingdom of JerusalemOfficers of the Kingdom of JerusalemOfficers of the Kingdom of CyprusAyyubid dynastyAlmohad CaliphateLatin EmpireMonastic state of the Teutonic KnightsMamluksMongol EmpireHouse of LusignanDuchy of AthensDuchy of the ArchipelagoRise of the Ottoman EmpireLatin Patriarchate of JerusalemArchdiocese of TyreArchdiocese of NazarethLatin Patriarchate of AntiochLatin Patriarchate of Constantinople

Cities and castles: JerusalemCitadel of Salah Ed-DinConstantinopleAcreKrak des ChevaliersFamagusta

Campaigns and battles: First CrusadeSiege of JerusalemSeljuk–Crusader WarReconquistaSecond CrusadeSiege of DamascusNorthern CrusadesBattle of HattinThird CrusadeBattle of ArsufLivonian CrusadeGerman CrusadeCrusades in ItalyFourth CrusadeAlbigensian CrusadeBattle of Las Navas de TolosaChildren's CrusadeFifth CrusadeSiege of DamiettaPrussian CrusadeSixth CrusadeSeventh CrusadeBattle of Al MansurahShepherds' CrusadeEighth CrusadeNinth CrusadeAragonese CrusadeAlexandrian CrusadeBattle of NicopolisHussite WarsCrusade of VarnaFall of ConstantinopleOttoman invasion of OtrantoFall of RhodesOttoman–Venetian WarsOttoman–Habsburg warsBattle of MohácsBattle of LepantoSpanish ArmadaBattle of Vienna

People: al-Hakim bi-Amr AllahAlexios I KomnenosPope Urban IIGodfrey of BouillonBernard of ClairvauxBaldwin of ExeterSaladinRichard I of EnglandLouis IX of FranceGuy of LusignanJames I of AragonMarino Sanuto the ElderPope Clement VITimurJohn HunyadiMuhammad XII of GranadaThomas Stukleyal-Afdal ibn Salah ad-Din

Military orders: Knights TemplarHistory of the Knights TemplarKnights HospitallerMilitary orders of the ReconquistaTeutonic Knights

Legacy: History of the Jews and the CrusadesSovereign Military Order of Malta

Things to do

Attention needed
...to referencing and citation  • ...to coverage and accuracy  • ...to structure  • ...to grammar  • ...to supporting materials 
Cleanup needed
Add an article here!
Requested articles 
Add an article here!
Expansion needed
Add an article here!
Images needed
Add an article here!
Merging needed
Add an article here!
Citations needed
First CrusadeSecond Crusade
Translation needed 
Add an article here!
Tagging needed
Category:Crusades

In general:

  • Tag articles.
  • Recruit interested editors.
  • Collect categories, resource links, and templates.
  • Expand the open task listing above.
  • Create new articles where none exist. Report new articles of adequate length at Template talk:Did you know.
  • Ensure accuracy of entries in Wikipedia lists and timelines. Fact check descriptions of Middle Ages military history within other types of articles.
  • Expand and improve stubs.
  • Raise existing articles to good article and featured article status.
  • Recognize good work by awarding barnstars and good article tags where appropriate.
  • Participate in active peer reviews:
  • Participate in active Article Creation and Improvement Drive reviews:

Specific:

# Al-Afdal ibn Salah ad-Din
# Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani
# Baha ad-Din
# Children's Crusade

Related portals

Associated Wikimedia

The following Wikimedia Foundation sister projects provide more on this subject:

Wikibooks
Books

Commons
Media

Wikinews 
News

Wikiquote 
Quotations

Wikisource 
Texts

Wikiversity
Learning resources

Wiktionary 
Definitions

Wikidata 
Database

  1. ^ Dracula
  2. ^ Count Dracula's Legend
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Portal:Crusades&oldid=854564199"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Crusades
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Portal:Crusades"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA