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Portal:Constructed languages

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Introduction

The Conlang Flag, a symbol of language construction created by subscribers to the CONLANG mailing list which represents the Tower of Babel against a rising sun.

A constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary have been consciously devised for human or human-like communication, instead of having developed naturally. Constructed languages may also be referred to as artificial, planned or invented languages and in some cases fictional languages. There are many possible reasons to create a constructed language, such as: to ease human communication (see international auxiliary language and code), to give fiction or an associated constructed setting an added layer of realism, for experimentation in the fields of linguistics, cognitive science, and machine learning, for artistic creation, and for language games.

The expression planned language is sometimes used to indicate international auxiliary languages and other languages designed for actual use in human communication. Some prefer it to the adjective artificial, as this term may be perceived as pejorative. Outside Esperanto culture, the term language planning means the prescriptions given to a natural language to standardize it; in this regard, even "natural languages" may be artificial in some respects, meaning some of its words can be crafted by conscious decision. Prescriptive grammars, which date to ancient times for classical languages such as Latin and Sanskrit. The term glossopoeia is also used to mean language construction, particularly construction of artistic languages.

Conlang speakers are rare. For example, the Hungarian census of 2001 found 4570 speakers of Esperanto, 10 of Romanid, two each of Interlingua and Ido and one each of Idiom Neutral and Mundolinco. The Russian census of 2010 found 992 speakers of Esperanto, nine of Ido, one of Edo and no speakers of Slovio or Interlingua.

Selected language

Edgar de Wahl (far right) in 1927.

The language Occidental, later Interlingue, is a planned international auxiliary language created by the Balto-German naval officer and teacher Edgar de Wahl, and published in 1922. The vocabulary is based on already existing words from various languages. The language is thereby naturalistic, at the same time as it is constructed to be regular. Occidental was quite popular in the years before the Second World War, but declined in the years thereafter.

Occidental is devised so that many of its derived word forms reflect the similar forms common to a number of Western European languages, primarily those in the Romance family. This was done through application of De Wahl's rule which is a set of rules for converting verb infinitives into derived nouns and adjectives. The result is a language easy to understand at first sight for individuals acquainted with several Western European languages. Coupled with a simplified grammar, this made Occidental exceptionally popular in Europe during the 15 years before World War II.

In The Esperanto Book, Don Harlow says that Occidental had an intentional emphasis on European forms, and that some of its leading followers espoused a Eurocentric philosophy, which may have hindered its spread. Still, Occidental gained adherents in many nations including Asian nations. According to the Occidental magazine Cosmoglotta in 1928, a majority of Ido adherents took up Occidental in place of Ido. Find out more...

Did you know...

...that Adjuvilo, although it was a fully developed language, was merely created to help create dissent in the then-growing Ido movement?
...that Winston Churchill initially supported Basic English as an international language, but was put off when he was told that "blood, toil, tears and sweat" translates as "blood, hard work, eyewash and body water"?
...that Kēlen is a constructed language that has no verbs, but still is able to express anything?

Current events

Corresponding categories

Projects

Conlangflag.svg You are invited to participate in WikiProject Constructed languages, a WikiProject dedicated to developing and improving articles about constructed languages.

Things you can do


Here are some Constructed language tasks: Several articles about constructed languages have been deleted for lack of verifiability, independent resources or notability. If you think one of the following subjects meets Wikipedia's criteria for inclusion, don't hesitate dig it up from the graveyard, but don't forget to add proper references:

Web resources

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Conlang Profiles at Langmaker.com
Some Internet resources relating to constructed languages, by Richard Kennaway
UniLang.org
Conlang wiki

Articles

Constructed language types
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A priori language, Artificial script, Artistic language, Constructed language, Controlled language, Engineered language, Experimental language, International auxiliary language, Language game, Logical language, Musical language, Oligosynthetic language, Philosophical language, Pivot language, Relexification, Universal language, Whistled language, Zonal constructed language

General language types

Agglutinative language, Analytic language, Inflectional language, Fusional language, Isolating language, Polysynthetic language, Synthetic language

See also: List of constructed languages, List of constructed scripts


International auxiliary languages
Esperanto flag

Languages: Adjuvilo, Afrihili, aUI, Babm, Basic English, Bolak (Blue Language), Communicationssprache, Dutton Speedwords, Esperanto, Esperanto II, Eurolengo, Europanto, Folkspraak, Français fondamental, Globish, Glosa, Idiom Neutral, Ido, Interglossa, Interlingua, Interslavic, Intal, Kotava, Langue nouvelle, Latino sine flexione, Lingua Franca Nova, Lingua sistemfrater, Lingwa de planeta, Lojban, Mondial, Mundolinco, Nal Bino, Neo, Novial, Occidental, Pasilingua, Poliespo, Romániço, Romanid, Sambahsa, Slovianski, Slovio, Simplified Technical English, Solresol, Sona, Spokil, Special English, Toki Pona, Tutonish, Universal, Universalglot, Uropi, Unish, Volapük

Creators: Arturo Alfandari, Louis de Beaufront, C. George Boeree, Léon Bollack, Claudius Colas, Louis Couturat, René Descartes, Reginald J. G. Dutton, Alexander Gode, Ján Herkeľ, Lancelot Hogben, Otto Jespersen, Arie de Jong, Juraj Križanić, Léopold Leau, Matija Majar, Diego Marani, Elias Molee, Charles Kay Ogden, Giuseppe Peano, Jean Pirro, Waldemar Rosenberger, Joseph Schipfer, Johann Martin Schleyer, Kenneth Searight, Jan van Steenbergen, Paul Steiner, Petro Stojan, François Sudre, Edgar de Wahl, Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof

See also: Arcaicam Esperantom, Esperantido, Esperanto and Ido compared, Esperanto and Interlingua compared, Pan-Germanic language, Pan-Slavic language, Proto-Esperanto, Reformed Esperanto


Logical, philosophical, and engineered languages
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Languages: An Essay towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language, aUI, Blissymbol, Characteristica universalis, CycL, Gibson Code, Ilaksh, Ithkuil, Kalaba-X, Láadan, Lincos, Loglan, Logopandecteision, Lojban, Loom, Ro

Creators: James Cooke Brown, George Dalgarno, Hans Freudenthal, Gottfried Leibniz, Francis Lodwick, Kenneth Lee Pike, John Wilkins


Artistic and fictional languages
Quenya, written in Tengwar

Languages: Atlantean, Adûnaic, Aklo, Al Bhed, Alltongue, Asa'pili, Ascian, Atlantean language, Aulëan, Babel-17, Balaibalan, Baronh, Barsoomian, Black Speech, Brithenig, Chakobsa, Chorukor, Cirquish, Darkovan, D'ni, Doriathrin, Dothraki, Drac, Dritok, Enchanta, Enochian, Galach, Gargish, Gnommish, Goa'uld, Huttese, Interlac, Iotic, Kēlen, Khuzdul, Klingon, Klingonaase, Koalang, Ku, Kobaïan, The Languages of Pao, Lapine, The Lexicon of Comicana, Linguacode, Loxian, Láadan, Mandalorian, Mangani, Marain, Mänti, Mezangelle, Moss, Nadsat, Na'vi, Newspeak, Old Tongue, Pravic, Ptydepe, Quenya, Rihannsu, Shyriiwook, Simlish, Sindarin, Speedtalk, Spocanian, Starckdeutsch, Stark, Starsza Mowa, Talossan, Telerin, Teonaht, The Speech, Tho Fan, Transpiranto, Tsolyáni, Utopian, Vendergood, Verdurian, Valyrian, Wenedyk, Zaum

Scripts: Aurebesh, Cirth, Tengwar

Creators: Richard Adams, Anthony Burgess, Sally Caves, Samuel R. Delany, Diane Duane, Suzette Haden Elgin, Paul Frommer, Václav Havel, Frank Herbert, Hergé, Ursula K. Le Guin, Barry B. Longyear, Morioka Hiroyuki, Marc Okrand, George Orwell, David J. Peterson, Mark Rosenfelder, David Salo, Jan van Steenbergen, Daniel Tammet, J. R. R. Tolkien, Christian Vander, Xul Solar, Marion Zimmer Bradley

See also: Alien language, Codex Seraphinianus, Elvish languages, False writing system, Languages in Star Wars, Languages constructed by J. R. R. Tolkien (Elvish languages (Middle-earth)), North Slavic languages


Constructed languages for special uses

Languages: Boontling, Brajabuli, Damin, Eskayan, Gestuno, High Icelandic, Iazychie, Kesen dialect, Lingua Ignota, Medefaidrin, Nuwaubic, Polari, Tadoma, Timerio, Yerkish

See also: Voynich manuscript


Constructed writing systems for natural languages
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Writing systems: Cherokee syllabary, Cree syllabics, Deseret alphabet, Hangul, Landsmål, Nynorsk, Shavian alphabet

Creators: Ivar Aasen, James Evans, William Fulco, Ronald Kingsley Read, Heinrich Schmid, Sequoyah


Organizations and regulating bodies

Akademio de Esperanto, Centre de documentation et d'étude sur la langue internationale, Esperanto Museum and Collection of Planned Languages, International Auxiliary Language Association, International Volapük Academy, Klingon Language Institute, Logical Language Group, Uniono por la Linguo Internaciona Ido


Miscellaneous

A Secret Vice, Bible translations into fictional languages, Conlanger, Conlanging - The Art of Crafting Tongues, Cosmoglottics, Esperantology, Ill Bethisad, Interlinguistics, ISO, SIL, and BCP language codes for constructed languages, Langmaker, Language planning, Language reform, Lingua generalis, Zompist.com

Wikipedia in constructed languages

 Wikipedia in Esperanto (247,690 articles)
 Wikipedia in Volapük (121,064 articles)
 Wikipedia in Ido (27,721 articles)
 Wikipedia in Interlingua (20,640 articles)
 Wikipedia in Interlingue (3,992 articles)
 Wikipedia in Novial (1,657 articles)
 Wikipedia in Lojban (1,220 articles)
 Wikipedia in Lingua Franca Nova (2,542 articles)
 Wikipedia in Simple English (134,816 articles)

Associated Wikimedia

The following Wikimedia Foundation sister projects provide more on this subject:

Wikibooks
Books

Commons
Media

Wikinews 
News

Wikiquote 
Quotations

Wikisource 
Texts

Wikiversity
Learning resources

Wiktionary 
Definitions

Wikidata 
Database

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