Portal:Communism

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Communism is a political ideology that seeks to establish a future without social class or formalized state structure, and with social organization based upon common ownership of the means of production. It can be classified as a branch of the broader socialist movement. Communism also refers to a variety of political movements which claim the establishment of such a social organization as their ultimate goal. Early forms of human social organization have been described as "primitive communism". However, communism as a political goal generally is a conjectured form of future social organization which has never been implemented. Marxism is a form of socioeconomic analysis that analyses class relations and societal conflict using dialectical materialism. There is a considerable variety of views among self-identified communists, including Bolshevism, Stalinism, Trotskyism, Maoism, council communism, Luxemburgism, Western Marxism and various currents of left communism, which are in addition to more widespread varieties. However, various offshoots of the Soviet and Maoist forms of Marxism–Leninism comprise a particular branch of communism that had been the primary driving force for communism in world politics during most of the 20th century.

The Soviet Union was a one-party federation, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital, which lasted from 1922 to 1991. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government. There was a succession of Soviet secret police agencies over time: Cheka, GPU, OGPU, NKVD, NKGB, MGB and KGB. The activities of these agencies include: suppression of dissent and political opposition, persecution and deportation of deserters, religious people, Jews, invasions, fabrication of crimes, espionage and disinformation. Joseph Stalin's cult of personality became a prominent part of Soviet culture in December 1929, after a lavish celebration for Stalin's 50th birthday. The Soviet Union has been described as totalitarian police state. The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc and powers in the Western Bloc. Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947 and 1991.

Mass killings occurred under some Communist regimes during the twentieth century: the Red Terror occurred during the Russian Civil War, Decossackization aimed at the elimination of the Cossacks, the Soviet famine of 1932–33 was a man-made famine that affected the major grain-producing areas of the Soviet Union, leading to millions of deaths, Dekulakization included the murder of peasants, purges of the Communist Party in the Union were a key ritual in which periodic reviews of members of the Communist Party were conducted to get rid of the "undesirables", NKVD prisoner massacres were a series of mass executions carried out by the Soviet NKVD secret police during World War II against political prisoners across Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union has also conducted several acts described as war crimes. Concentration camps came to be know as Gulags, established officially in 1930. Racism in the Soviet Union targeted Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europeans, Jews and Asians. There was systematic political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union, based on the interpretation of political opposition or dissent as a psychiatric problem. Homosexuality was criminalized from 1933 to 1993.

Selected article

Open session of the 18th party congress of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), 2005. Delhi.
The Communist Party of India (Marxist) (abbreviated CPI(M) or CPM; Hindi: भारत की कम्युनिस्ट पार्टी (मार्क्सवादी) Bhārat kī Kamyunisṭ Pārṭī (Mārksvādī)) is a communist party in India. The strength of CPI(M) is concentrated in the states of Kerala, West Bengal and Tripura. As of 2013, CPI(M) is leading the state government in Tripura. Also leads the Left Front coalition of leftist parties. As of 2009, CPI(M) claimed to have 1,042,287 members.

CPI(M) emerged out of a division within the Communist Party of India (CPI) in 1964. The CPI(M) was born into a hostile political climate. At the time of the holding of its Calcutta Congress, large sections of its leaders and cadres were jailed without trial. Again on 29–30 December, over a thousand CPI(M) cadres were arrested and detained, and held in jail without trial. In 1965 new waves of arrests of CPI(M) cadres took place in West Bengal, as the party launched agitations against the rise in fares in the Calcutta Tramways and against the then prevailing food crisis. State-wide general strikes and hartals were observed on 5 August 1965, 10–11 March 1966 and 6 April 1966. The March 1966 general strike results in several deaths in confrontations with police forces.


Selected biography

Pak Hon-yong.jpg
Pak Hon-yong (28 May 1900 – December 1956(?)) was a leader of the Korean Communist Party and Workers' Party of South Korea. One of the main leaders of the Korean communist movement.

He led of "Irkutsk Faction" and "Tuesday Faction", and "Kyongsong Communist Group" in Korean communist movement during Japan's colonial rule (1910–45). After the liberation of Korea, he participated in the formation of People's Republic of Korea in Seoul, but he strongly opposed the joint with the right-wing in South Korea. Eventually the government is dismissed. In the late 1940s, started the uprising and general strike in South Korea. In addition, he led factions involved in Jeju uprising. After returning to the failed uprising in South Korea, he go to North Korea for reunification talks, was remained in there. And his led Faction called "Domestic Faction" or "WPSK Faction" in Workers' Party of Korea. He led faction's Guerilla movements in the South continue until the Korean war. After 1955 he was not seen again, and it is widely believed that he was eliminated by Kim Il-sung's security forces.


Selected quote

3. In 1907 Stalin took part in the expropriation of the bank of Tiflis. The Mensheviks following the bourgeois philistines expressed indignation against the “conspiratorial” methods of bolshevism and its “anarcho-Blanquism”. We can have only one attitude toward this indignation: contempt. The fact of taking part in a resolute, tho only partial blow at the enemy can add only honor to the revolutionary resoluteness of Stalin. It is astonishing, however, that this fact has been removed in cowardly manner from all the official biographies of Stalin? Is it in the name of bureaucratic respectability? After all we think not. It is more likely for political reasons. For, if participation in expropriation in itself cannot compromise a revolutionist in the eyes of revolutionists, the false political appraisal of that situation compromises Stalin as a politician. Separate blows at the institutions of the enemy, including “treasuries”, are compatible only with the revolutionery offensive of the masses; i.e., with the ascent of the revolution. When the masses are retreating, partial, separate, partisan blows unavoidably degenerate into adventures and lead to demoralization of the party. In 1907 the revolution was receding and the expropriations degenerated into adventures. Stalin, at any rate, showed in that period that he was unable to distinguish between high and low tides. He will disclose in the future more than once (Esthonia, Bulgaria, Canton[disambiguation needed], the third period) incapability of political orientation on a broad scale.

4. Stalin, from the time of the first revolution leads the life of a professional revolutionist. Prisons, exiles, escapes. But during the entire period of the reaction (1907–11) we do not find a single document – article, letter, resolution – in which Stalin formulated his own appraisal of the situation and its perspectives. It is impossible that such documents do not exist. It is impossible that they are not preserved, if only in the archives of the police department. Why don’t they appear in the press? It is perfectly obvious why: they are unable to strengthen the absurd characterization of the theoretical and political infallibility that the apparatus, which means Stalin himself – creates for itself.

— Leon Trotsky (1879-1940)
A Political Biography of Stalin , 1932

Selected picture

RIAN archive 371352 Communist Party supporters rally in Moscow's Triumfalnaya Square.jpg
Communist Party of the Russian Federation supporters rally in Moscow's Triumfalnaya Square.

Photo credit: Vladimir Fedorenko

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Articles:
  • Arabic:
    • احمد نبيل الهلالي, حزب الشعب الفلسطيني
  • Asturian:
    • Movimientu Comunista d'Asturies, Horacio Fernández Inguanzo
  • Bulgarian:
    • Българска комунистическа партия, Георги Димитров, Андрей Луканов, Милко Балев, Цола Драгойчева, Георги Пирински (старши)
  • Catalan:
    • Partit Socialista Unificat de Catalunya, Antonio García Quejido, PSAN, Partit Comunista de Birmània, Partit Obrer Revolucionari, Partit del Treball de Catalunya,
  • Croatian:
    • Socijalistička radnička partija Jugoslavije (komunista)
  • Czech:
    • Komunistická strana Čech a Moravy, Socialistický svaz mládeže, Svaz československo-sovětského přátelství, Komunistická strana Československa (1995), Komunistická strana Československa - Československá strana práce, Lumír Sakmar, Socialismus - budoucnost světa
  • Danish:
    • da:Danmarks Kommunistiske Parti, da:Kommunistisk Parti, Arbejderpartiet Kommunisterne, DKP/ML, Fælles Kurs
  • Dutch:
    • Communistenbond van Bosnië-Herzegovina, De Tribune, De Vonk, Democratische Federatie van Hongaarse Vrouwen, Dimitrov Communistische Jeugdunie, Gerardus Johannes Marinus van het Reve, Hongaars Onafhankelijkheidsfront, Lijst van CPN-fractievoorzitters Tweede Kamer, Marxistischer Studentenbund Spartakus, Montenegrijnse Communistenbond, Nationale Raad van Hongaarse Vrouwen, De Waarheid, Elli Schmidt, Miljan Radović, Patriottisch Volksfront, PRON, Marko Orlandić, Ina Brouwer, Leendert van den Muijzenberg, Daan Monjé
  • Esperanto:
    • IKEK, Internacio de Proleta Esperantistaro, ESKI
  • Estonian:
    • Hans Pöögelmann, Karl Vaino
  • Farsi:
    • حزب کار ایران (طوفان), حزب کمونیست ایران, حزب کمونیست کارگری ایران, حزب کمونیست کارگری ایران-حکمتیست, حزب کمونیست کارگری چپ عراق, عصام شکری
  • Finnish:
    • Vallankumouksellinen nuorisoliitto, Sosialistinen opiskelijaliitto, Demokraattinen Vaihtoehto, Suomen kommunistinen nuorisoliitto, Sirola-opisto, Taisto Sinisalo
  • French:
    • Bureau international pour le parti révolutionnaire, Association des écrivains et artistes révolutionnaires, Union des combattants communistes, Groupe communiste révolutionnaire internationaliste, COMAC (jeunes communistes belges), Mouvement communiste français (marxiste-léniniste), Parti communiste révolutionnaire (marxiste-léniniste), Parti pour une alternative communiste, Union des Communistes de France Marxiste-Léniniste, Union des étudiants communistes
  • German:
    • Arbeiterbund für den Wiederaufbau der KPD, Allgemeine Arbeiter-Union – Einheitsorganisation, GegenStandpunkt, Kommunistische Jugend Österreichs - Junge Linke, Kommunistischer StudentInnenverband, Kommunistische Partei der Türkei/Marxisten Leninisten, Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, Kommunistische Partei Österreichs, Kommunistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands, Kommunistischer Jugendverband Deutschlands (1970er), Kommunistischer Oberschülerverband, Marxistisch-Leninistische Partei Deutschlands, Marxistische Gruppe, Münchner Räterepublik, Rote Gruppe, Rote Marine, Roter Frontkämpferbund, Sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterjugend, Spartakusbund, Vereinigte Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands
  • Greek:
    • Σοσιαλιστικό Εργατικό Κόμμα Ελλάδος
  • Hebrew:
    • רק"ח, המפלגה הקומוניסטית הישראלית
  • Hungarian:
    • Kommunizmus Magyarországon, Kommunista Ifjúsági Szövetség
  • Icelandic:
    • Alþýðubandalagið, Hannibal Valdimarsson, Sameiningarflokkur alþýðu - Sósíalistaflokkurinn
  • Italian:
    • Federazione Giovanile Comunista Italiana
  • Japanese:
    • 日本共産党 (左派), 日本共産党 (日本のこえ), 志賀義雄, 日本民主青年同盟, 全日本民主医療機関連合会, 日中共産党の関係
  • Korean:
    • 조선공산당, 남조선 로동당, 자주파(NL), 남로당 분류
  • Lithuanian:
    • Vincas Kapsukas, Kazys Giedrys, Lietuvos socialistų liaudininkų sąjunga
  • Malayalam:
    • വി.എസ്. അച്യുതാനന്ദന്‍
  • Norwegian:
    • ML-gruppa Revolusjon, Peder Furubotn, Zafer Gözet, Sverre Støstad, Kirsten Hansteen, Arne Gauslå, Tjen folket, Søstre, kamerater!
  • Romanian:
    • Listă de comunişti români, Partidul Comunist al Moldovei
  • Russian:
    • Коммунизм, Анархо-коммунизм, Левый коммунизм, Ленин, Владимир Ильич, Коммунистическая партия Советского Союза, Коммунистический интернационал, История коммунистических учений
  • Slovene:
    • Komunistična partija Slovenije, Vinko Hafner, Stane Žagar, Roman Naumovič Močulsk
  • Spanish:
    • Joventut Comunista del País Valencià, Colectivos de Jóvenes Comunistas, Frente Revolucionario Antifascista y Patriota, Unión de Juventudes Comunistas de España, Las Trece Rosas, Julián Grimau, Gladys Marín, Luis Emilio Recabarren, Partido Comunista de España Unificado, Partido Socialista Popular (Cuba), Unión Navarra de Izquierdas, Organización Revolucionaria de Trabajadores
  • Swedish:
    • Rebellrörelsen, Gustav Johansson, Nanjie
  • Turkish:
    • Halk İştirakiyun Fırkası, Türkiye Komünist Partisi, Türkiye İşçi Partisi, Sosyalist Türkiye Partisi, Rıza Yürükoğlu, Emek Partisi,İşçi Partisi

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