Portal:Communism

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Introduction

In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.

Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism and anarchism (anarcho-communism), as well as the political ideologies grouped around both. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism; that in this system there are two major social classes; that conflict between these two classes is the root of all problems in society; and that this situation will ultimately be resolved through a social revolution. The two classes are the working class—who must work to survive and who make up the majority within society—and the capitalist class—a minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. The revolution will put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production, which according to this analysis is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism. Critics of communism can be roughly divided into those concerning themselves with the practical aspects of 20th century communist states and those concerning themselves with communist principles and theory.

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Pin of the flag of the CPSU
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунистическая партия Советского Союза, Kommunisticheskaya partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza; short: КПСС, KPSS) was the only legal, ruling political party in the Soviet Union and one of the largest communist organizations in the world. It lost its dominance in the wake of the failed August 1991 coup d'état attempt led by authoritarian hardliners.

It emerged from the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin. The party led the 1917 October Revolution that overthrew the Russian Provisional Government and established the world's first socialist state. Given the central role under the Constitution of the Soviet Union, the party controlled all tiers of government in the Soviet Union and tolerated no opposition. Its organization was subdivided into communist parties of the constituent Soviet republics as well as the mass youth organization, Komsomol. The party was also the driving force of the Third International (Comintern).

The party ceased to exist after the coup d'état attempt in 1991 and was succeeded by the Communist Party of the Russian Federation in Russia and the communist parties of the now-independent former Soviet republics.


Selected biography

Vinod Mishra (Hindi: विनोद मिश्रा, 24 March 1947, Jabalpur – 18 December 1998, Lucknow) was an Indian communist politician. Mishra served as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation between 1975 and 1998.

Vinod Mishra was born to Suryakesh Mishra. The family moved to Kanpur in 1955. Mishra studied at Adarsh Banga Vidyalaya Inter College. Later he graduated from Kanyakubja Degree College and was admitted at the Christ Church Degree College for post-graduate studies in Mathematics. He went on to study at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at the Regional Engineering College in Durgapur in 1966. Mishra became associated with a group of leftwing students, who soon developed linkages to the AICCCR. Mishra led student rallies and a campus strike. By mid-1969 he had become a party wholetimer, leading a campaign of 'red terror' at the campus.

Mishra became the secretary of the Durgapur Local Organising Committee of the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) (formed out of the AICCCR) in the early 1970s. However, he was arrested. After having pass a period at Asansol hospital following brutal beatings by the police, he was sent to the Baharampur Central Jail. Mishra continued to conduct political activities inside the prison.


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Every political party worthy of the name strives to capture political power and thus place the State at the service of the class whose interests it expresses. The Social-Democrats, being the party of the proletariat, naturally strive for the political domination of the working class.

The proletariat grows and becomes stronger with the growth of capitalism. In this sense the development of capitalism is also the development of the proletariat towards dictatorship. But the day and the hour when power will pass into the hands of the working class depends directly not upon the level attained by the productive forces but upon relations in the class struggle, upon the international situation, and, finally, upon a number of subjective factors: the traditions, the initiative and the readiness to fight of the workers.

It is possible for the workers to come to power in an economically backward country sooner than in an advanced country. In 1871 the workers deliberately took power in their hands in petty-bourgeois Paris – true, for only two months, but in the big-capitalist centres of Britain or the United States the workers have never held power for so much as an hour. To imagine that the dictatorship of the proletariat is in some way automatically dependent on the technical development and resources of a country is a prejudice of ‘economic’ materialism simplified to absurdity. This point of view has nothing in common with Marxism.

In our view, the Russian revolution will create conditions in which power can pass into the hands of the workers – and in the event of the victory of the revolution it must do so – before the politicians of bourgeois liberalism get the chance to display to the full their talent for governing.

— Leon Trotsky (1879-1940)
The Permanent Revolution , 1930

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Communism in non-English Wikipedias

Articles:
  • Arabic:
    • احمد نبيل الهلالي, حزب الشعب الفلسطيني
  • Asturian:
    • Movimientu Comunista d'Asturies, Horacio Fernández Inguanzo
  • Bulgarian:
    • Българска комунистическа партия, Георги Димитров, Андрей Луканов, Милко Балев, Цола Драгойчева, Георги Пирински (старши)
  • Catalan:
    • Partit Socialista Unificat de Catalunya, Antonio García Quejido, PSAN, Partit Comunista de Birmània, Partit Obrer Revolucionari, Partit del Treball de Catalunya,
  • Croatian:
    • Socijalistička radnička partija Jugoslavije (komunista)
  • Czech:
    • Komunistická strana Čech a Moravy, Socialistický svaz mládeže, Svaz československo-sovětského přátelství, Komunistická strana Československa (1995), Komunistická strana Československa - Československá strana práce, Lumír Sakmar, Socialismus - budoucnost světa
  • Danish:
    • da:Danmarks Kommunistiske Parti, da:Kommunistisk Parti, Arbejderpartiet Kommunisterne, DKP/ML, Fælles Kurs
  • Dutch:
    • Communistenbond van Bosnië-Herzegovina, De Tribune, De Vonk, Democratische Federatie van Hongaarse Vrouwen, Dimitrov Communistische Jeugdunie, Gerardus Johannes Marinus van het Reve, Hongaars Onafhankelijkheidsfront, Lijst van CPN-fractievoorzitters Tweede Kamer, Marxistischer Studentenbund Spartakus, Montenegrijnse Communistenbond, Nationale Raad van Hongaarse Vrouwen, De Waarheid, Elli Schmidt, Miljan Radović, Patriottisch Volksfront, PRON, Marko Orlandić, Ina Brouwer, Leendert van den Muijzenberg, Daan Monjé
  • Esperanto:
    • IKEK, Internacio de Proleta Esperantistaro, ESKI
  • Estonian:
    • Hans Pöögelmann, Karl Vaino
  • Farsi:
    • حزب کار ایران (طوفان), حزب کمونیست ایران, حزب کمونیست کارگری ایران, حزب کمونیست کارگری ایران-حکمتیست, حزب کمونیست کارگری چپ عراق, عصام شکری
  • Finnish:
    • Vallankumouksellinen nuorisoliitto, Sosialistinen opiskelijaliitto, Demokraattinen Vaihtoehto, Suomen kommunistinen nuorisoliitto, Sirola-opisto, Taisto Sinisalo
  • French:
    • Bureau international pour le parti révolutionnaire, Association des écrivains et artistes révolutionnaires, Union des combattants communistes, Groupe communiste révolutionnaire internationaliste, COMAC (jeunes communistes belges), Mouvement communiste français (marxiste-léniniste), Parti communiste révolutionnaire (marxiste-léniniste), Parti pour une alternative communiste, Union des Communistes de France Marxiste-Léniniste, Union des étudiants communistes
  • German:
    • Arbeiterbund für den Wiederaufbau der KPD, Allgemeine Arbeiter-Union – Einheitsorganisation, GegenStandpunkt, Kommunistische Jugend Österreichs - Junge Linke, Kommunistischer StudentInnenverband, Kommunistische Partei der Türkei/Marxisten Leninisten, Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, Kommunistische Partei Österreichs, Kommunistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands, Kommunistischer Jugendverband Deutschlands (1970er), Kommunistischer Oberschülerverband, Marxistisch-Leninistische Partei Deutschlands, Marxistische Gruppe, Münchner Räterepublik, Rote Gruppe, Rote Marine, Roter Frontkämpferbund, Sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterjugend, Spartakusbund, Vereinigte Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands
  • Greek:
    • Σοσιαλιστικό Εργατικό Κόμμα Ελλάδος
  • Hebrew:
    • רק"ח, המפלגה הקומוניסטית הישראלית
  • Hungarian:
    • Kommunizmus Magyarországon, Kommunista Ifjúsági Szövetség
  • Icelandic:
    • Alþýðubandalagið, Hannibal Valdimarsson, Sameiningarflokkur alþýðu - Sósíalistaflokkurinn
  • Italian:
    • Federazione Giovanile Comunista Italiana
  • Japanese:
    • 日本共産党 (左派), 日本共産党 (日本のこえ), 志賀義雄, 日本民主青年同盟, 全日本民主医療機関連合会, 日中共産党の関係
  • Korean:
    • 조선공산당, 남조선 로동당, 자주파(NL), 남로당 분류
  • Lithuanian:
    • Vincas Kapsukas, Kazys Giedrys, Lietuvos socialistų liaudininkų sąjunga
  • Malayalam:
    • വി.എസ്. അച്യുതാനന്ദന്‍
  • Norwegian:
    • ML-gruppa Revolusjon, Peder Furubotn, Zafer Gözet, Sverre Støstad, Kirsten Hansteen, Arne Gauslå, Tjen folket, Søstre, kamerater!
  • Romanian:
    • Listă de comunişti români, Partidul Comunist al Moldovei
  • Russian:
    • Коммунизм, Анархо-коммунизм, Левый коммунизм, Ленин, Владимир Ильич, Коммунистическая партия Советского Союза, Коммунистический интернационал, История коммунистических учений
  • Slovene:
    • Komunistična partija Slovenije, Vinko Hafner, Stane Žagar, Roman Naumovič Močulsk
  • Spanish:
    • Joventut Comunista del País Valencià, Colectivos de Jóvenes Comunistas, Frente Revolucionario Antifascista y Patriota, Unión de Juventudes Comunistas de España, Las Trece Rosas, Julián Grimau, Gladys Marín, Luis Emilio Recabarren, Partido Comunista de España Unificado, Partido Socialista Popular (Cuba), Unión Navarra de Izquierdas, Organización Revolucionaria de Trabajadores
  • Swedish:
    • Rebellrörelsen, Gustav Johansson, Nanjie
  • Turkish:
    • Halk İştirakiyun Fırkası, Türkiye Komünist Partisi, Türkiye İşçi Partisi, Sosyalist Türkiye Partisi, Rıza Yürükoğlu, Emek Partisi,İşçi Partisi

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