From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Marx + Engels + Lenin .svg THE COMMUNISM PORTAL Marx + Engels + Lenin .svg

Communism is a political ideology that seeks to establish a future without social class or formalized state structure, and with social organization based upon common ownership of the means of production. It can be classified as a branch of the broader socialist movement. Communism also refers to a variety of political movements which claim the establishment of such a social organization as their ultimate goal. Early forms of human social organization have been described as "primitive communism". However, communism as a political goal generally is a conjectured form of future social organization which has never been implemented. Marxism is a form of socioeconomic analysis that analyses class relations and societal conflict using dialectical materialism. There is a considerable variety of views among self-identified communists, including Bolshevism, Stalinism, Trotskyism, Maoism, council communism, Luxemburgism, Western Marxism and various currents of left communism, which are in addition to more widespread varieties. However, various offshoots of the Soviet and Maoist forms of Marxism–Leninism comprise a particular branch of communism that had been the primary driving force for communism in world politics during most of the 20th century.

The Soviet Union was a one-party federation, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital, which lasted from 1922 to 1991. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government. There was a succession of Soviet secret police agencies over time: Cheka, GPU, OGPU, NKVD, NKGB, MGB and KGB. The activities of these agencies include: suppression of dissent and political opposition, persecution and deportation of deserters, religious people, Jews, invasions, fabrication of crimes, espionage and disinformation. Joseph Stalin's cult of personality became a prominent part of Soviet culture in December 1929, after a lavish celebration for Stalin's 50th birthday. The Soviet Union has been described as totalitarian police state. The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc and powers in the Western Bloc. Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947 and 1991.

Mass killings occurred under some Communist regimes during the twentieth century: the Red Terror occurred during the Russian Civil War, Decossackization aimed at the elimination of the Cossacks, the Soviet famine of 1932–33 was a man-made famine that affected the major grain-producing areas of the Soviet Union, leading to millions of deaths, Dekulakization included the murder of peasants, purges of the Communist Party in the Union were a key ritual in which periodic reviews of members of the Communist Party were conducted to get rid of the "undesirables", NKVD prisoner massacres were a series of mass executions carried out by the Soviet NKVD secret police during World War II against political prisoners across Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union has also conducted several acts described as war crimes. Concentration camps came to be know as Gulags, established officially in 1930. Racism in the Soviet Union targeted Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europeans, Jews and Asians. There was systematic political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union, based on the interpretation of political opposition or dissent as a psychiatric problem. Homosexuality was criminalized from 1933 to 1993.

Selected article

The Bolshevik
A communist revolution is a proletarian revolution inspired by the ideas of Marxism that aims to replace capitalism with communism, typically with socialism as an intermediate stage. The idea that a proletarian revolution is needed is a cornerstone of Marxism; Marxists believe that the workers of the world must unite and free themselves from capitalist oppression to create a world run by and for the working class. Thus, in the Marxist view, proletarian revolutions need to happen in countries all over the world; see world revolution.

Leninism argues that a communist revolution must be led by a vanguard of 'professional revolutionaries'—that is men and women who are fully dedicated to the communist cause and who can then form the nucleus of the revolutionary movement. Some Marxists disagree with the idea of a vanguard as put forth by Lenin, especially left communists but also including some who continue to consider themselves Marxists-Leninists despite such a disagreement. These critics insist that the entire working class - or at least a large part of it - must be deeply involved and equally committed to the socialist or communist cause in order for a proletarian revolution to be successful. To this end, they seek to build massive communist parties with very large memberships.

Selected biography

Antonio Gramsci, ca. early 20s
Antonio Gramsci (22 January 1891 – 27 April 1937) was an Italian writer, politician, political philosopher, and linguist. He was a founding member and onetime leader of the Communist Party of Italy and was imprisoned by Benito Mussolini's Fascist regime. Gramsci was one of the most important Marxist thinkers in the 20th century, and his writings are heavily concerned with the analysis of culture and political leadership; he is notable as a highly original thinker within modern European thought. He is renowned for his concept of cultural hegemony as a means of maintaining the state in a capitalist society.

Gramsci wrote more than 30 notebooks and 3000 pages of history and analysis during his imprisonment. These writings, known as the Prison Notebooks, contain Gramsci's tracing of Italian history and nationalism, as well as some ideas in Marxist theory, critical theory and educational theory associated with his name.

Selected quote

“Our ideological conceptions give rise to principles of organisation. No special organisations for women. A woman communist is a member of the Party just as a man communist, with equal rights and duties. There can be no difference of opinion on that score. Nevertheless, we must not close our eyes to the fact that the Party must have bodies, working groups, commissions, committees, bureaus or whatever you like, whose particular duty it is to arouse the masses of women workers, to bring them into contact with the Party, and to keep them under Its influence. That, of course, involves systematic work among them. We must train those whom we arouse and win, and equip them for the proletarian class struggle under the leadership of the Communist Party. I am thinking not only of proletarian women, whether they work in the factory or at home. The poor peasant women, the petty bourgeois – they, too, are the prey of capitalism, and more so than ever since the war. The unpolitical, unsocial, backward psychology of these women, their isolated sphere of activity, the entire manner of their life – these are facts. It would be absurd to overlook them, absolutely absurd. We need appropriate bodies to carry on work amongst them, special methods of agitation and forms of organisation. That is not feminism, that is practical, revolutionary expediency.”

I told Lenin that his words encouraged me greatly. Many comrades, and good comrades at that, strongly combated the idea that the Party should have special bodies for systematic work among women.

“That is neither new nor proof”, said Lenin. “You must not be misled by that. Why have we never had as many women as men in the Party – not at any time in Soviet Russia? Why is the number of women workers organised in trade unions so small? Facts give food for thought. The rejection of the necessity for separate bodies for our work among the women masses is a conception allied to those of our highly principled and most radical friends of the Communist Labour Party. According to them there must be only one form of organisation, workers’ unions. I know them. Many revolutionary but confused minds appeal to principle ‘whenever ideas are lacking’. That is, when the mind is closed to the sober facts, which must be considered. How do such guardians of ‘pure principle’ square their ideas with the necessities of the revolutionary policy historically forced upon us? All that sort of talk breaks down before inexorable necessity. Unless millions of women are with us we cannot exercise the proletarian dictatorship, cannot construct on communist lines. We must find our way to them, we must study and try to find that way.

— Clara Zetkin (1857-1933)
Lenin on the Women’s Question , 1920

Selected picture

PLP rally.jpg
Progressive Labor Party[disambiguation needed] supporters rally.

Photo credit: Jim Winstead

Did you know...


Want to find an article related to communism? Try browsing through any of the main categories below:

Communism-related Wikiprojects

Communism-related featured content

Things you can do

Communism-related topics


Variations of Communism

Organizations and ruling parties, past and present


Present and former Socialist states (under the direction of Communist parties)

Ideology and tactics


Marxian economics topics

Historical events

Military topics

Artists and writers

Influential works


Communism-related lists

Communism in non-English Wikipedias

  • Arabic:
    • احمد نبيل الهلالي, حزب الشعب الفلسطيني
  • Asturian:
    • Movimientu Comunista d'Asturies, Horacio Fernández Inguanzo
  • Bulgarian:
    • Българска комунистическа партия, Георги Димитров, Андрей Луканов, Милко Балев, Цола Драгойчева, Георги Пирински (старши)
  • Catalan:
    • Partit Socialista Unificat de Catalunya, Antonio García Quejido, PSAN, Partit Comunista de Birmània, Partit Obrer Revolucionari, Partit del Treball de Catalunya,
  • Croatian:
    • Socijalistička radnička partija Jugoslavije (komunista)
  • Czech:
    • Komunistická strana Čech a Moravy, Socialistický svaz mládeže, Svaz československo-sovětského přátelství, Komunistická strana Československa (1995), Komunistická strana Československa - Československá strana práce, Lumír Sakmar, Socialismus - budoucnost světa
  • Danish:
    • da:Danmarks Kommunistiske Parti, da:Kommunistisk Parti, Arbejderpartiet Kommunisterne, DKP/ML, Fælles Kurs
  • Dutch:
    • Communistenbond van Bosnië-Herzegovina, De Tribune, De Vonk, Democratische Federatie van Hongaarse Vrouwen, Dimitrov Communistische Jeugdunie, Gerardus Johannes Marinus van het Reve, Hongaars Onafhankelijkheidsfront, Lijst van CPN-fractievoorzitters Tweede Kamer, Marxistischer Studentenbund Spartakus, Montenegrijnse Communistenbond, Nationale Raad van Hongaarse Vrouwen, De Waarheid, Elli Schmidt, Miljan Radović, Patriottisch Volksfront, PRON, Marko Orlandić, Ina Brouwer, Leendert van den Muijzenberg, Daan Monjé
  • Esperanto:
    • IKEK, Internacio de Proleta Esperantistaro, ESKI
  • Estonian:
    • Hans Pöögelmann, Karl Vaino
  • Farsi:
    • حزب کار ایران (طوفان), حزب کمونیست ایران, حزب کمونیست کارگری ایران, حزب کمونیست کارگری ایران-حکمتیست, حزب کمونیست کارگری چپ عراق, عصام شکری
  • Finnish:
    • Vallankumouksellinen nuorisoliitto, Sosialistinen opiskelijaliitto, Demokraattinen Vaihtoehto, Suomen kommunistinen nuorisoliitto, Sirola-opisto, Taisto Sinisalo
  • French:
    • Bureau international pour le parti révolutionnaire, Association des écrivains et artistes révolutionnaires, Union des combattants communistes, Groupe communiste révolutionnaire internationaliste, COMAC (jeunes communistes belges), Mouvement communiste français (marxiste-léniniste), Parti communiste révolutionnaire (marxiste-léniniste), Parti pour une alternative communiste, Union des Communistes de France Marxiste-Léniniste, Union des étudiants communistes
  • German:
    • Arbeiterbund für den Wiederaufbau der KPD, Allgemeine Arbeiter-Union – Einheitsorganisation, GegenStandpunkt, Kommunistische Jugend Österreichs - Junge Linke, Kommunistischer StudentInnenverband, Kommunistische Partei der Türkei/Marxisten Leninisten, Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, Kommunistische Partei Österreichs, Kommunistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands, Kommunistischer Jugendverband Deutschlands (1970er), Kommunistischer Oberschülerverband, Marxistisch-Leninistische Partei Deutschlands, Marxistische Gruppe, Münchner Räterepublik, Rote Gruppe, Rote Marine, Roter Frontkämpferbund, Sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterjugend, Spartakusbund, Vereinigte Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands
  • Greek:
    • Σοσιαλιστικό Εργατικό Κόμμα Ελλάδος
  • Hebrew:
    • רק"ח, המפלגה הקומוניסטית הישראלית
  • Hungarian:
    • Kommunizmus Magyarországon, Kommunista Ifjúsági Szövetség
  • Icelandic:
    • Alþýðubandalagið, Hannibal Valdimarsson, Sameiningarflokkur alþýðu - Sósíalistaflokkurinn
  • Italian:
    • Federazione Giovanile Comunista Italiana
  • Japanese:
    • 日本共産党 (左派), 日本共産党 (日本のこえ), 志賀義雄, 日本民主青年同盟, 全日本民主医療機関連合会, 日中共産党の関係
  • Korean:
    • 조선공산당, 남조선 로동당, 자주파(NL), 남로당 분류
  • Lithuanian:
    • Vincas Kapsukas, Kazys Giedrys, Lietuvos socialistų liaudininkų sąjunga
  • Malayalam:
    • വി.എസ്. അച്യുതാനന്ദന്‍
  • Norwegian:
    • ML-gruppa Revolusjon, Peder Furubotn, Zafer Gözet, Sverre Støstad, Kirsten Hansteen, Arne Gauslå, Tjen folket, Søstre, kamerater!
  • Romanian:
    • Listă de comunişti români, Partidul Comunist al Moldovei
  • Russian:
    • Коммунизм, Анархо-коммунизм, Левый коммунизм, Ленин, Владимир Ильич, Коммунистическая партия Советского Союза, Коммунистический интернационал, История коммунистических учений
  • Slovene:
    • Komunistična partija Slovenije, Vinko Hafner, Stane Žagar, Roman Naumovič Močulsk
  • Spanish:
    • Joventut Comunista del País Valencià, Colectivos de Jóvenes Comunistas, Frente Revolucionario Antifascista y Patriota, Unión de Juventudes Comunistas de España, Las Trece Rosas, Julián Grimau, Gladys Marín, Luis Emilio Recabarren, Partido Comunista de España Unificado, Partido Socialista Popular (Cuba), Unión Navarra de Izquierdas, Organización Revolucionaria de Trabajadores
  • Swedish:
    • Rebellrörelsen, Gustav Johansson, Nanjie
  • Turkish:
    • Halk İştirakiyun Fırkası, Türkiye Komünist Partisi, Türkiye İşçi Partisi, Sosyalist Türkiye Partisi, Rıza Yürükoğlu, Emek Partisi,İşçi Partisi

Related portals

Associated Wikimedia

The following Wikimedia Foundation sister projects provide more on this subject:






Learning resources

Travel guides




Purge server cache

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Portal:Communism&oldid=829136151"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Communism
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Portal:Communism"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA