Portal:Coffee

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Introduction

A small cup of coffee.JPG

A cup of black coffee

Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, the seeds found inside "berries" of the Coffea plant. Coffee plants are cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in equatorial Latin America, Southeast Asia, India and Africa. The two most commonly grown are the highly regarded arabica, and the less sophisticated but more hardy robusta. The latter is resistant to the coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). Once ripe, coffee beans are picked, processed, and dried. Green (unroasted) coffee beans are one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world. Once traded, the beans are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor, before being ground and brewed to create coffee. Coffee can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways. Coffee is slightly acidic (pH 5.0–5.1) and can have a stimulating effect on humans because of its caffeine content. It is one of the most consumed drinks in the world.

The energizing effect of coffee was likely first discovered in the northeast region of Yemen. Coffee cultivation first took place in southern Arabia; the earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking appears in the middle of the 15th century in the Sufi shrines of Yemen. In East Africa and Yemen, coffee was used in native religious ceremonies that were in competition with the Christian Church. As a result, the Ethiopian Church banned its secular consumption until the reign of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia. The beverage was also banned in Ottoman Turkey during the 17th century for political reasons and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe. An important export commodity, coffee was the top agricultural export for twelve countries in 2004, and it was the world's seventh-largest legal agricultural export by value in 2005. Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment. Consequently, organic coffee is an expanding market.

Many studies have examined the health effects of coffee, and whether the overall effects of coffee consumption are positive or negative has been widely disputed. The majority of recent research suggests that moderate coffee consumption is benign or mildly beneficial in healthy adults. However, coffee can worsen the symptoms of some conditions, largely due to the caffeine and diterpenes it contains.

 

Selected article

Coffee beans being sorted and pulped by workers and volunteers, on an organic, fair-trade, shade-grown coffee plantation in Guatemala.
Organic coffee is coffee produced without the aid of artificial chemical substances, such as certain additives or some pesticides and herbicides. According to the center for Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education in Costa Rica (CATIE), 75% of the world's organic coffee comes from Latin America. The world's primary producer and exporter of organic coffee is Honduras. Brazil, Colombia and Mexico are also major coffee producers. Organic coffee production is generally on the rise in Latin America. As of 2010, about 10% of one-time organic growers had given in to conventional production due to price competition. However, this trend is reversing as consumers increasingly demand organic goods and investors step in to supply loans with manageable interest rates.


Categories

Selected picture

A coffee farmer with a basket of coffee beans in Ethiopia.
Credit: USAID Africa Bureau

A coffee farmer with a basket of coffee beans in Ethiopia.

Coffee news

News highlights
  • June 15, 2016: "Coffee May Protect Against Cancer, W.H.O. Concludes". The New York Times.
  • June 5, 2013: "Coffee blight in Central America: Changing livelihoods and your cup of joe". The Christian Science Monitor.
  • May 13, 2013: Tea-coffee war brewing, national drink tag at stake. Hindustan Times.
  • April 27, 2013: Don't Call It 'Turkish' Coffee, Unless, Of Course, It Is. NPR.
  • April 27, 2013: $600K For A Cup Of Coffee: Apple's Cook Is A Hit At Auction. NPR.
  • April 26, 2013: Exploring Coffee's Past To Rescue Its Future. NPR.
  • April 26, 2013: Why Caffeine In Coffee Is A Miracle Drug For The Tired. NPR.
  • April 25, 2013: EU Embraces 'Suspended Coffee': Pay It Forward With A Cup Of Joe. NPR.
  • March 18, 2013: Starbucks Buys Its First Coffee Farm. The Wall Street Journal.

  • October 10, 2010: Animal rights activists demand British coffee chain withdraw advertising campaign

Did you know?

Coffee trees in Hawaii
...that the only state in the United States of America able to grow coffee plants commercially is Hawaii?
Other "Did you know" facts... Read more...

Selected biography

Advertising for Lavazza, transport of coffee in Indochina, circa 1900
Luigi Lavazza (24 April 1859 – 16 August 1949) was an Italian businessman. He was the founder, in 1895, of the Lavazza coffee company in Turin, Italy. The origins of the Lavazza firm go back to 1895, when Luigi Lavazza purchased a little grocery store, Paissa Olivero, in the old commercial section of Turin (Northern Italy). The purchase was made for 26,000 Italian Lire, or about US $20.

In those times such stores operated as both retail and production outlets. The coffee, sold among thousands of other products, was bought raw, and then roasted and blended according to very personal recipes depending on the customers' requests. This activity soon attracted the interest of Luigi Lavazza, who had already demonstrated considerable knowledge and skills in the processing of blends, including both the quantities of the ingredients and the degree of roasting. The firm's expansion from retailing to wholesale trade (1910), the joining of Luigi's three sons Mario, Beppe and Pericle (during the First World War), and the progressive narrowing of the production range marked the first steps of an irresistible commercial growth, which enabled the Firm to acquire a notable position at regional level. The little grocery store became in 1927 the modern Luigi Lavazza S.p.A. that, after the forced stop caused by the League of Nations' economic sanctions, by the prohibition on the importation of coffee, and by the outbreak of the Second World War, finally came to specialize in the production of coffee. The first Lavazza logo was then created and the annual production reached 1,000 tons.


Topics

Related portals

Related WikiProjects

Wikimedia

The following Wikimedia Foundation sister projects provide more on this subject:

Wikibooks
Books

Commons
Media

Wikinews 
News

Wikiquote 
Quotations

Wikisource 
Texts

Wikiversity
Learning resources

Wikivoyage 
Travel guides

Wiktionary 
Definitions

Wikidata 
Database

Wikispecies 
Species

Web resources

Cup-o-coffee-simple.svg
  • World Coffee Research – a 501 (c)(5) nonprofit program of the international coffee industry. (Wikipedia article: World Coffee Research)
  • Coffee Research Foundation – based in Kenya, and founded in 1908
  • Central Coffee Research Institute – based in Chickmagalur District, India, and founded in 1915

Wikipedia's portals

Purge server cache

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Portal:Coffee&oldid=790182509"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Coffee
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Portal:Coffee"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA