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Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state. The municipality is located in northeastern Ohio on the southern shore of Lake Erie, approximately 60 miles (100 km) west of the Pennsylvania border. It was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, and became a manufacturing center owing to its location at the head of numerous canals and railroad lines. With the decline of heavy manufacturing, Cleveland's businesses have diversified into the service economy, including the financial services, insurance, and healthcare sectors. Cleveland is also noted for its association with rock music; the city is home to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

As of the 2000 Census, the city proper had a total population of 478,403, and was then the 33rd largest city in the nation and the second largest city in Ohio. It is the center of Greater Cleveland, the largest metropolitan area in Ohio, which spans several counties and is defined in several different ways by the Census Bureau. The Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor Metropolitan Statistical Area which in 2000 ranked as the 23rd largest in the United States with 2,250,871 people. Cleveland is also part of the larger Cleveland-Akron-Elyria Combined Statistical Area, which in 2000 had a population of 2,945,831, and ranked as the country's 14th largest.

In studies conducted by The Economist in 2005, Cleveland and Pittsburgh were ranked as the most livable cities in the United States, and the city was ranked as the best city for business meetings in the continental U.S. The city faces continuing challenges, in particular from concentrated poverty in some neighborhoods and difficulties in the funding and delivery of high-quality public education.

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William R. Hopkins served as the first city manager of Cleveland from 1924 to 1929. By that time, Cleveland had seen several controversial political figures in office such as Frederick Kohler and Harry L. Davis. Voters decided to try to extricate municipal government from partisan politics by adopting the city manager plan. Hopkins was selected by local Republican boss Maurice Maschke, former postmaster William J. Murphy, and business manager of the news George Moran as the man who could hold the job as the city's manager. He was elected to the position by a coalition.

As city manager, Hopkins brought new development to Cleveland. He pushed for the development of parks, improved welfare institutions, wider boulevards, more playgrounds, air pollution control, and the construction of the Van Sweringen brothers' Terminal Tower. However, because the balance between city council and the city's central government was outweighed due to Hopkins' efficiency, council was always at war with the city manager, especially the newly-elected Peter Witt.

In 1925, he proposed a bold new initiative; the construction of a large airport located ten miles southwest of downtown. At the time, the idea seemed like a pipe dream with the introduction of the airplane being relatively new. However, it was built as Cleveland Municipal Airport and became the first municipally owned airport in the United States. In 1951, the name was changed to Cleveland Hopkins International Airport in his honor.


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Map of Cleveland from 1904.


Major cities and townships: AkronClevelandCleveland HeightsCuyahoga FallsElyriaEuclidLakewoodLorainMentorParmaStrongsville

Culture: Cleveland BrownsCleveland CavaliersCleveland IndiansCleveland International Film FestivalCleveland OrchestraCleveland ScenePlayhouse SquareRock and Roll Hall of FameThe MallThe Plain DealerUniversity CircleWest Side MarketWMMS

Education: List of Colleges and UniversitiesCleveland State UniversityCleveland Institute of ArtBaldwin Wallace UniversityCase Western Reserve UniversityOberlin College

History: Connecticut Western ReserveProvince of QuebecGreat Lakes Storm of 1913NewburghPublic SquareHough RiotsThe FlatsMoses CleavelandC. E. RuthenbergHistory of Cleveland

People: People from AkronPeople from ClevelandPeople from Shaker Heights

Governance: Neighborhoods in ClevelandCommunities in Greater ClevelandCuyahoga County CouncilCleveland Division of PoliceList of politicians

Sister cities

  1. ^ "Bratislava City – Twin Towns". © 2003–2009 Bratislava-City.sk. Retrieved July 7, 2009. 
  2. ^ "Gdańsk Official Website: 'Miasta partnerskie'" (in Polish and English). © 2009 Urząd Miejski w Gdańsku. Retrieved July 11, 2009.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  3. ^ http://www.city.cleveland.oh.us/portal/page/portal/CityofCleveland/Home/Government/MayorsOffice/Office_of_Government_Affairs/SisterCities#heidenheim
  4. ^ http://www.cleveland-oh.gov/CityofCleveland/Home/media-gallery/slideshow?id=630
  5. ^ Roguski, Randy (August 10, 2008). "Cleveland hopes to gain from century-old link to Rouen, France". Plain Dealer. Retrieved September 26, 2009. 
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