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Flag of the Republic of Chile
Coat of Arms of the Republic of Chile
Location of Chile

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile (Spanish: About this sound República de Chile ), is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow coastal strip wedged between the Andes mountains and the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific forms the country's entire western border, with Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage at the country's southernmost tip. Chile claims 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of territory in Antarctica.

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Puyehue and Cordón Caulle are two coalesced volcanic vents that form a major mountain massif in Puyehue National Park in the Andes of El Ranco Province, Chile. In volcanology this group is known under the name of Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Volcanic Complex and hence also by the acronym PCCVC. Four different volcanoes constitute the volcanic group or complex, the Cordillera Nevada caldera, the Pliocene Mencheca volcano, Cordón Caulle fissure vents and the Puyehue stratovolcano. As with most stratovolcanoes on the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes Puyehue and Cordón Caulle are located along the intersection of a NW–SE fault with the larger N–S Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault. The volcanic complex has shaped the landscape around and produced a huge variery of volcanic landforms and products over the last 300 ka. Cinder cones, lava domes, calderas and maars can be found in the area apart from the widest variety of volcanic rocks in all the Southern Volcanic Zone and Chile, for example both MgO-rich basalts and rhyolites.

Apart from this, the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle area is one of the main sites of geothermal exploration in Chile. Geothermal activity is manifested on the surface of Puyehue and Cordón Caulle as several hot springs and geysers. Cordón Caulle is also notable for having erupted following the 9.5 Mw 1960 Valdivia earthquake the largest recorded earthquake in history.

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Lautaro Cañete.jpg

Lautaro (Mapudungun: Lef-Traru, Speedy Southern Caracara) was a Mapuche military leader and protagonist of the War of Arauco in Chile. He was able to defeat and exterminate the Spanish forces of Governor Pedro de Valdivia in the Battle of Tucapel in 1553. After the defeat at Tucapel, the Spanish hurriedly reorganized their forces, reinforcing fort Imperial for its defence and abandoning Confines and Arauco in order to strengthen Concepción.He later led the Mapuches once again into victory at the Battle of Marihueñu in 1554, but lost the Battle of Peteroa in 1556 and the Battle of Mataquito in 1557 in which he also died. The figure of Lautaro became important as a Mapuche war hero during the subsequent conflicts with the Spanish, and is also an important symbol for the modern Mapuche revindications.

In the news

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Did you know?

  • ...that Ojos del Salado is the highest mountain in Chile and the highest volcano in the world?
  • ...that the Chinchorro mummies are the oldest examples of mummified human remains, dating to thousands of years before the Egyptian mummies?



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