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Portal:Chicago

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Introduction

Chicago montage1.jpg

Chicago (/ʃɪˈkɑːɡ/ (About this sound listen), locally also /-ˈkɔː-/), officially the City of Chicago, on Lake Michigan in Illinois, is one of the largest cities in the United States. As of the 2017 census-estimated population of 2,716,450, Chicago is the third most populous city in the United States after New York and Los Angeles, and the most populous city in both the state of Illinois and the Midwestern United States. It is the county seat of Cook County. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area, often referred to as "Chicagoland.” The Chicago metropolitan area has nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States of America, fourth largest in North America, and the third largest in the world by urban landmass. The city is also the birthplace of the skyscraper, and considered the most influential architectural city of the 20th century. Chicago saw the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade; today its successor has evolved into the largest and most diverse derivatives market in the world, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures.

Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew rapidly in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild. The construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, and by 1900 Chicago was one of the five largest cities in the world. During this period, Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, which included creating new construction styles (including the Chicago School of architecture), the development of the City Beautiful Movement, and the steel-framed skyscraper.

Positioned along Lake Michigan, the city is an international hub for finance, commerce, industry, technology, telecommunications, and transportation. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, and the region also has the largest number of U.S. highways and railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, and it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index. Chicago has the fourth-largest gross metropolitan product in the world—about $670.5 billion according to September 2017 estimates—ranking it after the metropolitan areas of Tokyo, New York City, and Los Angeles, and ranking ahead of London and Paris. The city has one of the world's largest and most diversified and balanced economies not dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.

Selected article

Crown Fountain is an interactive public fountain in Millennium Park, in the Loop community area of Chicago in Cook County, Illinois, United States. Designed by Jaume Plensa, it opened in July 2004. The fountain consists of a black granite reflecting pool located between a pair of artistic and technically sophisticated opposing glass brick sculptures measuring 50 feet (15 m) in height. The structure involved numerous complicated electronics and architectural considerations, and the construction and design cost $17 million. Throughout most of the warmer months, it incorporates water in the form of a cascade and spouting water nozzle as well as a reflecting pool. The sculptures are known for the digital videos of Chicago residents that they display continuously throughout the year. The fountain has been praised by both trained architects and ordinary city residents for its artistic contribution to Millennium Park. In addition, the fountain has a reputation as a public play area that accommodates a need to escape from summer heat. At times when the National Weather Service issues summer heat advisories and the Illinois Governor is compelled to declare state office buildings as official daytime cooling centers, the national press points to Crown Fountain as a respite not only for Chicagoans, but also for residents of the most remote reaches of the Chicago metropolitan area.

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Chicago Landmark is a designation of the Mayor of Chicago and the Chicago City Council for historic buildings and other sites in Chicago, Illinois. Listed sites are selected after meeting a combination of criteria, including historical, economic, architectural, artistic, cultural, and social values. Once a site is designated as a landmark, it is subject to the Chicago Landmarks Ordinance, which requires that any alterations beyond routine maintenance, up to and including demolition, must have their permit reviewed by the Landmarks Commission. Many Chicago Landmarks districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects worthy of preservation by the National Park Service have been listed on the National Register of Historic Places, providing federal tax support for preservation, and some have been designated with National Historic Landmark status by the United States Secretary of the Interior for historical significance, providing additional federal oversight.

In Chicago, the historic preservation movement initially sought to ensure the survival of individual buildings of special significance. However, the movement has evolved to include districts and neighborhoods and even encompasses distinctive areas of the natural environment. In 1957, Chicago City Council 5th ward Alderman Leon Despres began the landmark preservation movement in Chicago, by adopting the Frank Lloyd Wright Robie House. This led to the formation of the City Landmarks Commission, who chose 39 buildings as "honorary" landmarks. That body evolved into the present Commission on Chicago Landmarks which was empowered by Despres's 1968 city ordinance to select and protect 12 important buildings as the inaugural official Chicago Landmarks. The efforts spawned the Landmarks Preservation Council of Illinois in addition to the municipal Commission. (Read more...)

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Selected biography

Edward M. Burke
Edward M. "Ed" Burke (born 1943) is alderman of the 14th Ward of the City of Chicago. A member of the Democratic Party, he was first elected to the Chicago City Council in 1969, and represents part of the city's Southwest Side. Chair of Council's Committee on Finance, Burke has been called Chicago's "most powerful alderman" by the Chicago Sun-Times. Burke was named one of the "100 Most Powerful Chicagoans" by Chicago Magazine, describing him as "[o]ne of the last of the old-school Chicago Machine pols". Burke is the longest serving alderman in Chicago history. He was a leader of the "Vrdolyak 29" during the first term of Mayor Harold Washington, Chicago's first black mayor, the "Council Wars" era. Burke and his staff were the subjects of federal and local investigations, and members of his staff were the targets of indictments and convictions involving payroll and contracting irregularities. Burke is the lead partner in a law firm that specializes in property tax appeals and which includes clients who do business with the city. Burke's wife is Illinois Supreme Court Justice Anne M. Burke. He and his wife were foster parents and were party to a protracted, highly publicized, racially charged child custody dispute.

Quote

Oprah Winfrey
"My first day in Chicago, September 4, 1983. I set foot in this city, and just walking down the street, it was like roots, like the motherland. I knew I belonged here." — Oprah Winfrey

Selected landmark

Monadnock Building
The Monadnock Building (historically the Monadnock Block), is a skyscraper located in the south Loop community area of Chicago, Illinois. The north half of the building was designed by the firm of Burnham & Root and built in 1891. The tallest commercial load-bearing masonry building ever constructed, it employed the first portal system of wind bracing in America. Its decorative staircases represent the first use of aluminum in building construction. The south half, constructed in 1893, was designed by Holabird & Roche and is similar in color and profile to the original, but the design is more traditionally ornate. When completed, it was the largest office building in the world. The building was remodelled in 1938 in one of the first major skyscraper renovations ever undertaken—a bid, in part, to revolutionize how building maintenance was done and halt the demolition of Chicago's aging skyscrapers. It was sold in 1979 to owners who restored the building to its original condition. The north half is an unornamented vertical mass of purple-brown brick, flaring gently out at the base and top, with vertically continuous bay windows projecting out. The south half is vertically divided by brickwork at the base and rises to a large copper cornice at the roof. Projecting window bays in both halves allow large exposures of glass, giving the building an open appearance despite its mass. The Monadnock is part of the Printing House Row District. It was one of the first buildings named a Chicago Architectural Landmark in 1958. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1970, and named as part of the National Historic Landmark South Dearborn Street–Printing House Row North Historic District in 1976.

News

Wikinews Chicago, Illinois portal
  • January 18: Former NASA astronaut Eugene Cernan dies aged 82
  • January 12: U.S. President Obama's farewell address focuses on accomplishment
  • September 26: Chicago air traffic facility evacuated for basement fire
  • June 23: Spelling error appears on Medill School of Journalism diplomas

Did you know?

  • Al Wistert

...that the All-American Wistert brothers Albert (pictured), Alvin and Whitey wore number 11 and played offensive tackle as University of Michigan Wolverines before being named to the College Football Hall of Fame?


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