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The chemistry portal

Colourful solutions in test-tubes.
Welcome to the chemistry portal. Chemistry is a branch of science. Modern chemistry focuses on the study of elements of the world and the bonds between elements. Chemistry also deals with composition, structure, and properties of substances and the transformations that they undergo. The study of chemistry can help people to make new materials. In the study of matter, chemistry also investigates its interactions with energy and itself. Chemistry doesn't just explain the Chemical properties of matter, but also explains almost all Physical properties of matter such as density, hardness, electrical conductivity, flexibility, melting points etc. Therefore understanding basic Chemistry will also help understand many physical phenomena. Because of the diversity of matter, which is mostly in the form of compounds, chemists often study how atoms of different chemical elements interact to form molecules, and how molecules interact with each other. Chemistry involves more than just ordinary chemical reactions involving the transference of electrons and includes fields of study such as Nuclear Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry and Nuclear reactions.
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Featured article - Selected picture - News - Selected biography - History and Philosophy - Techniques - Equipment - Chemistry in society - Chemistry in industry - Periodic Table - Resources - WikiProjects - Things you can do - Collaboration of the month - Related portals - Associated Wikimedia

Featured article

Space-filling diagram of a fragment of DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. All living things contain DNA, with the exception of some viruses with RNA genomes. The main role of DNA in the cell is the long term storage of information. It is often compared to a blueprint, since it contains the instructions to construct other components of the cell, such as proteins and RNA molecules. The DNA segments that carry genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in regulating the expression of genetic information.

DNA is a long polymer of simple units called nucleotides, which are held together by a backbone made of sugars and phosphate groups. This backbone carries four types of molecules called bases and it is the sequence of these four bases that encodes information. The major function of DNA is to encode the sequence of amino acid residues in proteins, using the genetic code. To read the genetic code, cells make a copy of a stretch of DNA in the nucleic acid RNA. These RNA copies can then be used to direct protein synthesis, but they can also be used directly as parts of ribosomes or spliceosomes.

James D. Watson and Francis Crick produced the first accurate model of DNA structure in 1953 in their article The Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids. Watson and Crick proposed the central dogma of molecular biology in 1957, describing how proteins are produced from nucleic DNA. In 1962 Watson, Crick, and Maurice Wilkins jointly received the Nobel Prize.

Selected picture

A 2.38g piece of aerogel supports a 2.5kg brick.
Credit: NASA

Aerogel is a low-density solid-state material derived from gel in which the liquid component of the gel has been replaced with gas. The result is an extremely low density solid with several remarkable properties, most notably its effectiveness as an thermal insulator. It is also very strong structurally, able to hold over 2000 times its own weight. Its impressive load bearing abilities are due to the dendritic microstructure. In the image, a 2.5kg brick is supported by a piece of aerogel weighing only 2.38 grams.


History and Philosophy of Chemistry

Antoine Lavoisier

Many chemists have an interest in the history of chemistry. Those with philosophical interests will be interested that the philosophy of chemistry has quite recently developed along a path somewhat different from the general philosophy of science.

Other articles that might interest you are:

There is a Wikipedia Project on the History of Science and a portal for the philosophy of science.

Chemistry Resources

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Wikipedia:WikiProject Chemicals/Data is a collection of links and references that are useful for chemistry-related works. This includes free online chemical databases, publications, patents, computer programs, and various tools.

Science is Fun University of Wisconsin–Madison Chemistry Professor Bassam Z. Shakhashiri, shares the fun of science. A good place to figure out what equals what.

General Chemistry Online Clear text and comprehensive coverage of general chemistry topics by Fred Senese, Dept. of Chemistry Frostburg State University

General Chemistry Demonstration at Purdue Video clips (and descriptions) of lecture demonstrations.

Intota Chemistry Experts A large online listing of real-world chemistry expert biographies provides examples of the many areas of expertise and careers in chemistry.

Chemistry Webercises Directory A large listing of chemistry resources maintained by Steven Murov, Emeritus Chemistry Professor Modesto Junior College.

MathMol MathMol (Mathematics and Molecules) is a good starting point for those interested in the field of molecular modeling.

Chemistry Educational Resources and Essential References from Wiley, the world's largest chemistry publisher

ABC-Chemistry A directory of free full-text journals in chemistry, biochemistry and related subjects.

The Element Song A goofy little song about all of the elements.

Selected biography

Yuan Tseh Lee (born 1936) is a Taiwanese chemist, and the first Taiwanese-born Nobel Prize laureate. Along with John Charles Polanyi and Dudley R. Herschbach, he received the 1986 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for their contributions to the dynamics of chemical elementary processes." Lee's particular work was on crossed molecular beams, to further its use in general reactions, a method for the study of important reactions for relatively large molecules. Since 1994, Lee has been the President of the Academia Sinica of the Republic of China.

Techniques used by chemists

Equipment used by chemists

Chemistry in society

Chemistry in industry


Periodic Table

Group 1 2 3   4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals Pnicto­gens Chal­co­gens Halo­gens Noble gases


Hydro­gen1H1.008 He­lium2He4.0026
2 Lith­ium3Li6.94 Beryl­lium4Be9.0122 Boron5B10.81 Carbon6C12.011 Nitro­gen7N14.007 Oxy­gen8O15.999 Fluor­ine9F18.998 Neon10Ne20.180
3 So­dium11Na22.990 Magne­sium12Mg24.305 Alumin­ium13Al26.982 Sili­con14Si28.085 Phos­phorus15P30.974 Sulfur16S32.06 Chlor­ine17Cl35.45 Argon18Ar39.948
4 Potas­sium19K39.098 Cal­cium20Ca40.078 Scan­dium21Sc44.956 Tita­nium22Ti47.867 Vana­dium23V50.942 Chrom­ium24Cr51.996 Manga­nese25Mn54.938 Iron26Fe55.845 Cobalt27Co58.933 Nickel28Ni58.693 Copper29Cu63.546 Zinc30Zn65.38 Gallium31Ga69.723 Germa­nium32Ge72.630 Arsenic33As74.922 Sele­nium34Se78.971 Bromine35Br79.904 Kryp­ton36Kr83.798
5 Rubid­ium37Rb85.468 Stront­ium38Sr87.62 Yttrium39Y88.906 Zirco­nium40Zr91.224 Nio­bium41Nb92.906 Molyb­denum42Mo95.95 Tech­netium43Tc[98] Ruthe­nium44Ru101.07 Rho­dium45Rh102.91 Pallad­ium46Pd106.42 Silver47Ag107.87 Cad­mium48Cd112.41 Indium49In114.82 Tin50Sn118.71 Anti­mony51Sb121.76 Tellur­ium52Te127.60 Iodine53I126.90 Xenon54Xe131.29
6 Cae­sium55Cs132.91 Ba­rium56Ba137.33 Lan­thanum57La138.91 1 asterisk Haf­nium72Hf178.49 Tanta­lum73Ta180.95 Tung­sten74W183.84 Rhe­nium75Re186.21 Os­mium76Os190.23 Iridium77Ir192.22 Plat­inum78Pt195.08 Gold79Au196.97 Mer­cury80Hg200.59 Thallium81Tl204.38 Lead82Pb207.2 Bis­muth83Bi208.98 Polo­nium84Po[209] Asta­tine85At[210] Radon86Rn[222]
7 Fran­cium87Fr[223] Ra­dium88Ra[226] Actin­ium89Ac[227] 1 asterisk Ruther­fordium104Rf[267] Dub­nium105Db[268] Sea­borgium106Sg[269] Bohr­ium107Bh[270] Has­sium108Hs[270] Meit­nerium109Mt[278] Darm­stadtium110Ds[281] Roent­genium111Rg[282] Coper­nicium112Cn[285] Nihon­ium113Nh[286] Flerov­ium114Fl[289] Moscov­ium115Mc[290] Liver­morium116Lv[293] Tenness­ine117Ts[294] Oga­nesson118Og[294]
1 asterisk Cerium58Ce140.12 Praseo­dymium59Pr140.91 Neo­dymium60Nd144.24 Prome­thium61Pm[145] Sama­rium62Sm150.36 Europ­ium63Eu151.96 Gadolin­ium64Gd157.25 Ter­bium65Tb158.93 Dyspro­sium66Dy162.50 Hol­mium67Ho164.93 Erbium68Er167.26 Thulium69Tm168.93 Ytter­bium70Yb173.05 Lute­tium71Lu174.97  
1 asterisk Thor­ium90Th232.04 Protac­tinium91Pa231.04 Ura­nium92U238.03 Neptu­nium93Np[237] Pluto­nium94Pu[244] Ameri­cium95Am[243] Curium96Cm[247] Berkel­ium97Bk[247] Califor­nium98Cf[251] Einstei­nium99Es[252] Fer­mium100Fm[257] Mende­levium101Md[258] Nobel­ium102No[259] Lawren­cium103Lr[266]

Note: Nihonium, moscovium, tennessine, and oganesson have only recently been named.

Things you can do

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Here are some things you can do:

Collaboration of the Month

Nuvola apps edu science.png The current Chemistry Article Improvement Drive is Sodium hydroxide.
Every month a different chemistry-related topic, stub or non-existent article may be picked. Please improve the article any way you can.

Related portals

Associated Wikimedia

Chemistry portal on Wikinews   Chemists on Wikiquote   Chemistry portal on Wikisource   Chemistry subject on Wikibooks   Chemistry category on Wikicommons   Chemistry category on Wiktionary   Wikiversity School of Chemistry
News Quotations Publications Manuals Images Definitions Learning
  1. ^ Meija, J.; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. 
  2. ^ IUPAC 2016, Table 2, 3 combined; uncertainty removed.
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