Portal:Canada

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Introduction


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Canada /ˈkænədə/ is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean. It is the world's second largest country by total area. Canada's common border with the United States to the south and northwest is the longest in the world.

The land that is now Canada was inhabited for millennia by various groups of Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French expeditions explored, and later settled, along the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years' War. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.

Canada is a federation that is governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. It is a bilingual nation with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. One of the world's highly developed countries, Canada has a diversified economy that is reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade—particularly with the United States, with which Canada has had a long and complex relationship. It is a member of the G7, G-20, NATO, OECD, WTO, Commonwealth, Francophonie, OAS, APEC, and UN.

Coat of Arms of Canada (1957).jpg More about...Canada, its history and inhabitants

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The Maple Leaf, l'Unifolié
The National Flag of Canada, also known as the Maple Leaf, and l'Unifolié (French for "the one-leafed"), is a red flag with a white square in its centre, featuring a stylized 11-pointed red maple leaf. Its adoption in 1965 marked the first time a national flag had been officially adopted to replace the Union Flag. The Canadian Red Ensign had been unofficially used since the 1890s and was approved by a 1945 Order-in-Council for use "wherever place or occasion may make it desirable to fly a distinctive Canadian flag". In 1964, Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson appointed a committee to resolve the issue, sparking a serious debate about a flag change. Out of three choices, the maple leaf design by George F. G. Stanley based on the flag of the Royal Military College of Canada was selected. The flag made its first appearance on February 15, 1965; the date is now celebrated annually as National Flag of Canada Day.

Many different flags have been created for use by Canadian officials, government bodies, and military forces. Most of these flags contain the maple leaf motif in some fashion, either by having the Canadian flag charged in the canton, or by including maple leaves in the design. The Royal Union Flag is also an official flag in Canada, used as a symbol of Canada's membership in the Commonwealth of Nations, and of its allegiance to the Crown. The Union Flag forms a component of other Canadian flags, including the provincial flags of British Columbia, Manitoba and Ontario.

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Portrait of Brock by John Wycliffe Lowes Forster
Isaac Brock(October 6, 1769 – October 13, 1812) was a British Army officer and administrator. His actions while stationed in the Canadian colonies earned him a knighthood, accolades, and the epithet: The Hero of Upper Canada.

Brock was assigned to Canada in 1802, and became responsible for defending the Canadian borders from the United States during the War of 1812. While many in Canada and Britain believed war could be averted, he began readying the army and militia for what was to come. When war broke out, the populace was prepared; quick victories at Fort Mackinac and Detroit crippled American invasion efforts.

During Brock's time in Canada he faced desertions and near mutinies, but his actions earned him membership in the Order of the Bath, and fought in concert with "celebrated" American Indian leader Tecumseh. He died in the Battle of Queenston Heights.

Brock was born in St Peter Port on the Channel Island of Guernsey, the eighth son of a middle class family. He earned a reputation during his early education on Guernsey as an assiduous student, as well as an exceptional swimmer and boxer. At age ten, he was sent to school in Southampton but spent one year in Rotterdam learning French.

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aple


Acer (maple) is a genus of trees or shrubs. They are variously classified in a family of their own, the Aceraceae, or (together with the Hippocastanaceae) included in the family Sapindaceae. As of April 25, 1996, the maple tree became the national arboreal emblem of Canada...

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180-degree panorama of Toronto, Canada, as seen from the CN Tower, altitude 447 m (1,465 ft). Circa 2000.

Panoramic view of Toronto
Credit: Sunshine87 (Johannes Akkach)

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