Portal:Bulgarian Empire

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The Bulgarian Empire in its expansion in the 13th century

In the medieval history of Europe, Bulgaria's status as the Bulgarian Empire (Bulgarian: Българско царство, Balgarsko tsarstvo [ˈbəlɡɐrskʊ ˈt͡sarstvʊ]), wherein it acted as a key regional power (particularly rivaling Byzantium in Southeastern Europe) occurred in two distinct periods: between the seventh and eleventh centuries, and again between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries. The two "Bulgarian Empires" are not treated as separate entities, but rather as one state restored after a period of Byzantine rule over its territory.

Selected Article

The inscription of Mostich with the title "Tsar" enclosed in red.
Tsar (Bulgarian: цар, Russian: About this sound царь ) is a Slavic term derived from the Latin word Caesar, meant emperor in the European medieval sense of the term, that is, a ruler who claims the same rank as a Roman emperor, with the approval of another emperor or a supreme ecclesiastical official (the Pope or the Ecumenical Patriarch). Occasionally, the word could be used to designate other, non-Christian, supreme rulers. In Russia and Bulgaria the imperial connotations of the term were blurred with time and, by the 19th century, it had come to be viewed as an equivalent of King.

The title was adopted and used for the first time by Simeon I (r. 893-927) in 913 and was officially recognized by the Byzantines in 927. Some of the earliest attested occurrences of the contraction "tsar" (car' ) from "tsesar" (cěsar' ) are found in the grave inscription of the (ichirgu-boil) Mostich, a contemporary of Simeon I and Peter I, from Preslav. The title, later augmented with epithets and titles such as autocrat to reflect current Byzantine practice, was used by all of Simeon's successors until the complete conquest of Bulgaria by the Ottoman Empire in 1422. The last person to hold the title was Simeon II (r. 1943-1946).

Selected Biography

An icon of Saint Clement of Ohrid.
Saint Clement of Ohrid (Church Slavonic: Климє́нтъ Охрїдьскъ, Bulgarian: Свети Климент Охридски [sveˈti ˈkliment ˈoxridski]; ca. 840 – 916) was a medieval Bulgarian scholar and writer and he is a saint venerated in the Orthodox communion. He was the most prominent disciple of Saints Cyril and Methodius and is often associated with the creation of the Glagolitic and Cyrillic alphabets, especially their popularisation among Christianised Slavs. He was the founder of the Ohrid Literary School and is considered as a patron of education and language by most Slavic nations. He is regarded to be the first bishop of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, one of the seven Apostles of the Bulgarian Empire.

Evidence about his life is scarce but according to his hagiography by Theophylact of Ohrid, Clement was born in southwestern part of the Bulgarian Empire, in the region then known as Kutmichevitsa. After the death of Methodius in 885 he returned to Bulgaria from Great Moravia. Clement was welcomed by Boris I and was commissioned to organise the teaching of theology to future clergymen in Old Bulgarian in Kutmichevitza.

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Did You Know?

Monastere batchkovo.jpg
  • ... that the first Bulgarian capital Pliska encircled an area of 27 km² and had a sewerage long before cities such as Paris or London?


Battles Rulers
Byzantine–Bulgarian wars
Bulgarian–Hungarian wars
Croatian–Bulgarian wars
Bulgarian–Rus' wars
Bulgarian–Latin wars
Bulgarian–Serbian wars
Bulgarian–Ottoman wars
Tsars (Emperors)







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