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Bulgarian: Добре дошли в българския портал!

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Welcome to the Bulgarian portal!

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Къде е България? • Where is Bulgaria?

(Partially recognized Western-Bulgarian autonomy, the Republic of Macedonia is marked in orange)

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Bulgaria (/bʌlˈɡɛəriə, bʊl-/ (About this sound listen); Bulgarian: България, tr. Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Република България, tr. Republika Bǎlgariya, IPA: [rɛˈpublikɐ bɐɫˈɡarijɐ]), is a country in southeastern Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. The capital and largest city is Sofia; other major cities are Plovdiv, Varna and Burgas. With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres (42,855 sq mi), Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country.

In the Neolithic period, organized prehistoric cultures appeared in the lands that would one day become Bulgaria. In Antiquity (6th–3rd century BC), the region became a battleground for Thracians, Persians, Celts and Macedonian Greeks until it was conquered by the Roman Empire in 45 AD. The Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire lost some of these territories to an invading Bulgar horde in the late 7th century. The Bulgars then founded the first unified Bulgarian state in 681 AD which dominated most of the Balkans and functioned as a cultural hub for Slavs during the Middle Ages. The First Bulgarian Empire lasted until the early 11th century, when Byzantine emperor Basil II conquered and dismantled it. A successful Bulgarian revolt in 1185 established a Second Bulgarian Empire which reached its apex under Ivan Asen II (1218–1241). After numerous exhausting wars and feudal strife, the Second Bulgarian Empire disintegrated in 1396 and its territories fell under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 resulted in the formation of the current Third Bulgarian State. Many ethnic Bulgarian populations were left outside its borders, which led to several conflicts with its neighbours and an alliance with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 Bulgaria became a one-party socialist state and part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc. The ruling Communist Party gave up its monopoly on power after the Revolutions of 1989 and allowed multi-party elections. Bulgaria then transitioned into a democracy and a market-based economy.

Since the adoption of a democratic constitution in 1991, Bulgaria has functioned as a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative, and economic centralisation. Most commercial and administrative activities are concentrated in its capital and largest city of Sofia. The predominantly urbanized population of seven million people mainly inhabits the primary cities of the 28 provinces. Bulgaria's market economy is part of the European Single Market and is largely based on services, agriculture, and a sizeable industrial sector focused on mining and machine building.

Bulgaria is a member of the European Union, NATO, and the Council of Europe; it is a founding state of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and has taken a seat at the UN Security Council three times. It is also notable for its biodiversity, its achievements in sports and science, particularly space exploration, and its historical influence on Slavic cultures through its Medieval literary schools and the Cyrillic script. However, it continues to struggle with crippling corruption and severe demographic decline.

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Coat of arms of Bulgaria from Zhefarovich's Stemmatographia
Hristofor Zhefarovich (original Cyrillic Христофоръ Жефаровичъ) was an 18th-century South Slavic painter, engraver, writer and poet and a figure of the Illyrian movement.

Born in the end of the 17th century, Zhefarovich descended from a priestly family from Dojran in Macedonia and became a monk himself. As a highly-educated and well-learned vagrant monk he painted and traded with books, icons and church plate.

Zhefarovich's work of greatest importance for the South Slavic Revival was his Stemmatographia published in Vienna in 1741. Stemmatographia was illustrated by Zhefarovich with copper engravings and black and white drawings. It contains 20 images of Bulgarian and Serbian rulers and saints, as well as 56 coats of arms of Slavic and other Balkan countries with descriptive quatrains under them, regarded as the first example of modern secular Bulgarian and Serbian poetry. Stemmatographia had a crucial influence on the Bulgarian (particularly Paisius of Hilendar) and Serbian Revival and made a great impact on the entire Bulgarian heraldry of the 19th century.


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Nuvola apps kate.png Requested articlesBirth rate in Bulgaria (bg) • Census of Bulgaria, 1992 (bg) • Census of Bulgaria, 2001 (bg) • Census of Bulgaria, 2011 (bg) • Bulgarian architecture (bg) • Bulgarian gardenersTotyu Mladenov (bg) • Alexander Tsvetkov (bg) • Nona Karadzhova (bg) • Stefan Konstantinov (bg) • Minko Gerdzhikov (bg) • Nikolay Liliev (bg) • Teodor Trayanov (bg) • Bulgarian dressPliska–Preslav culture (bg) • Evgeni Tanchev (bg) • Plamen Paskov (bg)

Nuvola kdict glass.png ExpandDulo clanYantra RiverNestinarstvoVrana PalacePliskaGate of TrajanGeorgi IvanovGeorgi BenkovskiEkaterina DafovskaName days in BulgariaEvlogi GeorgievSlivenShumenShishman dynasty

Nuvola apps kappfinder.png Requested imagesKlokotnitsaNaftex StadiumPalitsiVrana PalaceDimitar Petkov

Nuvola apps filetypes.svg Further informationWikiProject BulgariaBulgarian Collaboration ProjectTranslation into English/Bulgarian

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Did You Know?

  • ... that the early 17th-century church in the village of Dobarsko features frescoes of Jesus taking off in a rocket?
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