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Portal:Brazil

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Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil [bɾaˈziw]), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil, About this sound listen ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the sixth most populous. The capital is Brasília, and the most populated city is São Paulo. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers (4,655 mi). It borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, and extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats. This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, and is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.

Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. The federation is composed of the union of the Federal District, the 26 states, and the 5,570 municipalities.

Brazil's economy is the world's eighth-largest by both nominal GDP and GDP (PPP) as of 2017. A member of the BRICS group, Brazil until 2010 had one of the world's fastest growing major economies, with its economic reforms giving the country new international recognition and influence. Brazil's national development bank plays an important role for the country's economic growth. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the CPLP. Brazil is a regional power in Latin American and a middle power on international affairs with potential superpower status. One of the world's major breadbaskets, Brazil has also been the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years.

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TAM Airlines Flight 3054 wreckage
Credit: Agência Brasil
TAM Airlines Flight 3054 (JJ 3054) was a scheduled domestic passenger flight between Porto Alegre and São Paulo, Brazil. The Airbus A320 aircraft used for the route, PR-MBK crashed upon landing during rain in São Paulo on July 17, 2007. PR-MBK overran the runway, crossed a major thoroughfare during rush hour, crashed at high speed into a TAM Express warehouse adjacent to a gas station and exploded. There were 187 people on board: 181 passengers, 19 of them were TAM employees, and 6 crew members. All passengers and crew were killed in the crash, in addition to twelve people on the ground. As of 2007, Flight 3054 has the highest death toll of any aviation accident in Latin America and the highest death toll of any accident involving an Airbus A320 anywhere in the world.

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Leblon
Credit: Zimbres

Leblon is an affluent neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro, just west of Ipanema, another neighborhood in that city. In the north it is bordered by Gávea, and in the west by a towering hill called "Dois Irmãos", which translates as "two brothers", because of its split peak.

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Brazil has rediscovered itself, and this rediscovery is being expressed in its people's enthusiasm and their desire to mobilize to face the huge problems that lie ahead of us.
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Tom Zé
Credit: Sérgio Savarese
Tom Zé (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˌtõw̃ ˈzɛ]; born Antônio José Santana Martins, 11 October 1936 in Irará, Bahia, Brazil) is a songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, and composer who was influential in the Tropicália movement of 1960s Brazil. After the peak of the Tropicália period, Zé went into relative obscurity: it was only in the 1990s, when the musician and label head David Byrne discovered an album recorded by Zé many years earlier, that he returned to performing and releasing new material.

Tom Zé grew up in the small town of Irará, Bahia in the northeastern Sertão. He would later claim that his hometown was "pre-Gutenbergian", as information was primarily transferred through oral communication. As a child, he was influenced by Brazilian musicians such as Luiz Gonzaga and Jackson do Pandeiro. Zé became interested in music by listening to the radio, and moved to Salvador to pursue a degree. He later relocated to São Paulo and began his career in popular music there. Much of his early work involved his wry impressions of the massive metropolitan area, coming from a small town in the relatively poor northeast.

In the news

In the news
  • November 25: Italian court sentences Brazilian footballer Robinho to nine years for 2013 sexual assault
  • September 15: Football: Marcelo signs contract extension with Real Madrid
  • August 4: Football: Paris Saint-Germain pays world record €222m to sign Neymar
  • July 17: Sun's mood swings not so strange after all, say scientists
  • July 15: Costa joins Juventus FC on one-year loan
  • January 17: At least 26 killed in another Brazil prison riot
  • January 15: Geneticists produce laser-activated killer mice
  • January 5: At least 56 killed in Brazil prison riot

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Beach of Noiva do Mar, in the city of Xangri-lá, Rio Grande Do Sul, Brazil.
Credit: Tetraktys

Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost State of Brazil, and the State with the fourth highest Human Development Index (HDI). In the largest and most populous region of the state is the most southern city of the country, Chuí, on the border with Uruguay. The mountain region, where the winter can be rigorous, has cities with European characteristics, such as Gramado and Canela.

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