Portal:Bangladesh Liberation War

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bangladesh Liberation War Portal

Introduction

Flag of Bangladesh

The Bangladesh Liberation War (Bengali: মুক্তিযুদ্ধ Muktijuddho), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide. It resulted in the independence of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. The war began after the Pakistani military junta based in West Pakistan launched Operation Searchlight against the people of East Pakistan on the night of 25 March 1971. It pursued the systematic elimination of nationalist Bengali civilians, students, intelligentsia, religious minorities and armed personnel. The junta annulled the results of the 1970 elections and arrested Prime minister-designate Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. The war ended on 16 December 1971 after West Pakistan surrendered.

Rural and urban areas across East Pakistan saw extensive military operations and air strikes to suppress the tide of civil disobedience that formed following the 1970 election stalemate. The Pakistan Army, which had the backing of Islamists, created radical religious militias – the Razakars, Al-Badr and Al-Shams – to assist it during raids on the local populace. Urdu-speaking Biharis in Bangladesh (ethnic minority) were also in support of Pakistani military. Members of the Pakistani military and supporting militias engaged in mass murder, deportation and genocidal rape. The capital Dhaka was the scene of numerous massacres, including the Operation Searchlight and Dhaka University massacre. An estimated 10 million Bengali refugees fled to neighboring India, while 30 million were internally displaced. Sectarian violence broke out between Bengalis and Urdu-speaking immigrants. An academic consensus prevails that the atrocities committed by the Pakistani military were a genocide.

The Bangladeshi Declaration of Independence was proclaimed from Chittagong by members of the Mukti Bahini – the national liberation army formed by Bengali military, paramilitary and civilians. The East Bengal Regiment and the East Pakistan Rifles played a crucial role in the resistance. Led by General M. A. G. Osmani and eleven sector commanders, the Bangladesh Forces waged a mass guerrilla war against the Pakistani military. They liberated numerous towns and cities in the initial months of the conflict. The Pakistan Army regained momentum in the monsoon. Bengali guerrillas carried out widespread sabotage, including Operation Jackpot against the Pakistan Navy. The nascent Bangladesh Air Force flew sorties against Pakistani military bases. By November, the Bangladesh forces restricted the Pakistani military to its barracks during the night. They secured control of most parts of the countryside.

The Provisional Government of Bangladesh was formed on 17 April 1971 in Mujibnagar and moved to Calcutta as a government in exile. Bengali members of the Pakistani civil, military and diplomatic corps defected to the Bangladeshi provisional government. Thousands of Bengali families were interned in West Pakistan, from where many escaped to Afghanistan. Bengali cultural activists operated the clandestine Free Bengal Radio Station. The plight of millions of war-ravaged Bengali civilians caused worldwide outrage and alarm. The Indian state led by Indira Gandhi provided substantial diplomatic, economic and military support to Bangladeshi nationalists. British, Indian and American musicians organised the world's first benefit concert in New York City to support the Bangladeshi people. Senator Ted Kennedy in the United States led a congressional campaign for an end to Pakistani military persecution; while US diplomats in East Pakistan strongly dissented with the Nixon administration's close ties to the Pakistani military dictator Yahya Khan.

India joined the war on 3 December 1971, after Pakistan launched preemptive air strikes on North India. The subsequent Indo-Pakistani War witnessed engagements on two war fronts. With air supremacy achieved in the eastern theatre and the rapid advance of the Allied Forces of Bangladesh and India, Pakistan surrendered in Dacca on 16 December 1971.

The war changed the geopolitical landscape of South Asia, with the emergence of Bangladesh as the seventh-most populous country in the world. Due to complex regional alliances, the war was a major episode in Cold War tensions involving the United States, the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China. The majority of member states in the United Nations recognised Bangladesh as a sovereign nation in 1972.

Selected article

Bansec71.PNG

Operation Jackpot was the codename assigned to several different operations during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. The original "Operation Jackpot" was the logistical and training operation set up under the Indian Army Eastern Command to aid the Mukti Bahini-led insurgency. The commando operation that sabotaged Pakistan Navy and other ships in Chittagong, Chandpur, Mongla and Naryanganj on the 15th of August is known in Bangladesh as "Operation Jackpot". Finally, the operational plan of Lt Gen Sagat Singh, commanding the Indian Army IV corps and Mukti Bahini personnel against Pakistani forces defending the eastern sector (Syhlet, Comilla, Noakhali and Chittagong districts) during December 3-16 may also have been named "Operation Jackpot".

Selected biography

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was a Bengali political leader in East Pakistan and the founding leader of Bangladesh. Heading the Awami League, he served as the first President and later Prime Minister of Bangladesh. An advocate of socialism, Mujib became popular for his leadership against the ethnic and institutional discrimination of Bengalis. At the heightening of sectional tensions, Mujib outlined a 6-point autonomy plan which was seen as separatism in West Pakistan. After talks broke down with President Yahya Khan and West Pakistani politician Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Mujib was arrested and a guerrilla war erupted between government forces and Bengali nationalists. Indian intervention in 1971 would lead to the establishment of Bangladesh, and after his release Mujib would assume office as provisional president, and later prime minister. Even as a constitution was adopted, proclaiming socialism and a secular democracy, Mujib struggled to address the challenges of intense poverty and unemployment. Amidst rising political turmoil, he banned other political parties and declared himself president in 1975. Mujib was assassinated with his family by a group of army officers. (more...)


Categories

Selected picture

P O Waleed E Karim with other pilots 2.jpg
Credit: Waleed Karim

Pilot Officer Waleed Karim with some classmates. Photo taken with Waleed Karim's camera. Photographer's estate is now inherited by his nephew Dawood Karim. D. Karim has donated these to Wikipedia under GFDL. Written Permission forwarded to Foundation.

Did you know?


Topics

War field Main events Specific articles Participants Biography


War related portals

Things to do

edit·history·watch·refresh Stock post message.svg To-do list for Portal:Bangladesh Liberation War:

To-do list is empty: remove {{To do}} tag or click on edit to add an item.

Wikimedia

The following Wikimedia Foundation sister projects provide more on this subject:

Wikibooks
Books

Commons
Media

Wikinews 
News

Wikiquote 
Quotations

Wikisource 
Texts

Wikiversity
Learning resources

Wikivoyage 
Travel guides

Wiktionary 
Definitions

Wikidata 
Database

Wikispecies 
Species

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Portal:Bangladesh_Liberation_War&oldid=840972144"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Bangladesh_Liberation_War
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Portal:Bangladesh Liberation War"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA