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Autumn or Fall is one of the four temperate seasons. Autumn is the period between summer and winter, usually in September (northern hemisphere) or March (southern hemisphere) when the arrival of night becomes noticeably earlier. In the northern hemisphere, the meteorological start of autumn is on September 1 and it ends on November 30; in the southern hemisphere it starts on March 1 and ends on May 31. The astronomical start of autumn is on the Autumnal Equinox (September 22–23) and ends on the Winter Solstice (December 21–22) in the northern hemisphere, and March 20 and June 21 in the southern hemisphere. Autumn starts on or around August 7 and ends on about November 6 in solar term. The word autumn comes from the Old French word autompne (automne in modern French), and was later normalized to the original Latin word autumnus. There are rare examples of its use as early as the 14th century, but it became common by the 16th century. Before the 16th century, harvest was the term usually used to refer to the season. However as more people gradually moved from working the land to living in towns, the word harvest lost its reference to the time of year and came to refer only to the actual activity of reaping, and fall and autumn began to replace it as a reference to the season.


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Tornado damage
The Mid-October 2007 tornado outbreak was a widespread tornado outbreak that took place across much of the eastern half of North America starting on October 17, 2007 and continuing into the early hours of October 19. The outbreak was also responsible for five deaths; three in Michigan and two in Missouri, plus many injuries (including some from non-tornadic events). At least 64 tornadoes were confirmed including 16 on October 17 across six states including Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi and Missouri with wind damage reported in Oklahoma, Kansas, Illinois, Iowa, Arkansas and Mississippi. On October 18, at least 48 tornadoes were confirmed across eight states including Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana and Michigan, plus widespread straight line wind damage. It was the largest tornado outbreak ever recorded in the month of October according to NOAA. A deep low pressure system (with a pressure of 977 mbar at its peak) moved across the Pacific Coast on October 15 and then crossed the Rockies during the following day and touched out some moist air from the Gulf of Mexico, major source for storm development and intensification.

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Red Barn Ontario (2231)-Relic38.jpg
Barn in Rural Ontario, Canada during October 2007

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Columbus celebrations are holidays celebrated in various countries in the Americas and elsewhere commemorating Christopher Columbus' arrival, which occurred on October 12, 1492 in the Julian calendar, October 21, 1492 in the modern Gregorian calendar. The day is celebrated as Columbus Day in the United States, as Día de la Raza (Day of the Race) in many countries in Latin America, as Día de las Culturas (Day of the Cultures) in Costa Rica, as Discovery Day in The Bahamas, as Día de la Hispanidad and Fiesta Nacional in Spain, as Día de las Américas (Day of the Americas) in Uruguay and as Día de la Resistencia Indígena (Day of Indigenous Resistance) in Venezuela.


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