Portal:Astronomy

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The Astronomy Portal

Astronomy portal

A man sitting on a chair mounted to a moving platform, staring through a large telescope.

Astronomy is a natural science that is the study of celestial objects (such as moons, planets, stars, nebulae, and galaxies), the physics, chemistry, and evolution of such objects, and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth, including supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic background radiation.

Astronomy is one of the oldest sciences. Prehistoric cultures have left astronomical artifacts such as the Egyptian monuments and Nubian monuments, and early civilizations such as the Babylonians, Greeks, Chinese, Indians, Iranians and Maya performed methodical observations of the night sky. However, the invention of the telescope was required before astronomy was able to develop into a modern science. Historically, astronomy has included disciplines as diverse as astrometry, celestial navigation, observational astronomy, and the making of calendars, but professional astronomy is nowadays often considered to be synonymous with astrophysics.

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Triton mosaic from Voyager 2
Triton is the largest moon of the planet Neptune, discovered on October 10, 1846 by William Lassell. It is the only large moon in the Solar System with a retrograde orbit, which is an orbit in the opposite direction to its planet's rotation. At 2700 km in diameter, it is the seventh-largest moon in the Solar System. Because of its retrograde orbit and composition similar to Pluto's, Triton is thought to have been captured from the Kuiper belt. Triton consists of a crust of frozen nitrogen over an icy mantle believed to cover a substantial core of rock and metal. The core makes up two-thirds of its total mass. Triton has a mean density of 2.061 g/cm3 and is composed of approximately 15–35% water ice.

Triton is one of the few moons in the Solar System known to be geologically active. As a consequence, its surface is relatively young, with a complex geological history revealed in intricate and mysterious cryovolcanic and tectonic terrains. Part of its crust is dotted with geysers believed to erupt nitrogen.

The moon was discovered by British astronomer William Lassell just 17 days after Neptune itself was discovered by German astronomers Johann Gottfried Galle and Heinrich Louis d'Arrest, who were following co-ordinates given them by French astronomer and mathematician Urbain Le Verrier.

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Cassiopeia A
Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Cassiopeia A (Cas A) is a supernova remnant in the constellation Cassiopeia and the brightest astronomical radio source in the sky, with a flux of 2720 Jy at 1 GHz. The supernova occurred approximately 11,000 light-years (3.4 kpc) away in the Milky Way.

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These books may be in various stages of development. See also the related Science and Mathematics bookshelves.

  • Astronomy
  • GAT: A Glossary of Astronomical Terms
  • Introduction to Astrophysics
  • General relativity
  • Observing the Sky from 30°S
  • Observing the Sky from 40°N

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  • Solar System

Astronomical events

All times UT unless otherwise specified.

4 November, 05:23 Full moon
6 November, 00:17 Moon at perigee
16 November, 01:00 Iota Aurigids peak
17 November, 16:00 Leonids peak
18 November, 11:42 New moon
20 November, 01:49 Mars at northern solstice
21 November, 19:03 Moon at apogee
24 November, 00:30 Mercury at greatest eastern elongation
27 November, 05:18 Moon occults Neptune

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