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The Ashura (Arabic: عاشوراء‎‎ ʻĀshūrā’ , colloquially: /ʕa(ː)ˈʃuːra/; Urdu: عاشورا‎; Persian: عاشورا‎‎ /ʕɒːʃuːˈɾɒ/; Turkish: Aşure Günü) is on the tenth day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram. Shi'a Muslims maintain that Ashura is a day of great sorrow due to the tragic events of Karbala. It is commemorated by Shi'a Muslims as a day of mourning for the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad at the Battle of Karbala on 10 Muharram in the year 61 AH ( in AHt: October 10, 680 CE). The massacre of Husayn with small group of his companions and family members had great impact on the religious conscience of Muslims. Especially Shia Muslims have ever remembered it with sorrow and passion. Mourning for Husayn and his companions began almost immediately after the Battle of Karbala, by his survivor relatives and supporters.

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Karbala at Arba'een
The Mourning of Muharram marks the anniversary of the Battle of Karbala when Imam Hussein ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad, was killed by the forces of the second Umayyad caliph Yazid I at Karbala. Family members, accompanying Hussein ibn Ali, were killed or subjected to humiliation. The commemoration of the event during yearly mourning season, from first of Muharram to twentieth of Safar with Ashura comprising the focal date, serves to define Shia communal identity. At present, Muharram Observances are carried out in countries with noteworthy Shia population, including Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Pakistan, Lebanon, India, and Bahrain.

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Shrine of Zaynab bint Ali located in Damascus, Syria.
Zaynab bint Ali (Arabic: زينب بنت علي‎‎ Also: Zainab, Zeinab, or with the title Sayyeda/Sayyidah) was one of the daughters of the first Shia Imam, Ali and his first wife Fatimah. Muhammad the Islamic prophet was her maternal grandfather, and thus she is a member of ahl al-bayt (the household of Muhammad), and is therefore often revered not only for her admirable characteristics and actions but also for her membership in and continuation of the biological line of Muhammad. She became known as the "Hero of Karbala"because in many ways she functioned as a model of defiance against oppression and other forms of injustice. Zaynab and the other survivors of Husayn's army, most of them women and children, were marched to Damascus, Yazid's capital, where they were held captive.

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A scene in Arbaeen pilgeimage
Credit: Mhhossein

A man holding a plate full of dates on his head waiting for passing arbaeen pilgrims have them, Arbaeen 2015.

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Muharram procession in Bahrain

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