Portal:Arizona

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Arizona (/ˌærɪˈznə/ (About this sound listen); Navajo: Hoozdo Hahoodzo [xòːztò xɑ̀xòːtsò]; O'odham: Alĭ ṣonak [ˡaɺi ˡʂonak]) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the Western and the Mountain states. It is the sixth largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona is one of the Four Corners states. Arizona is bordered by New Mexico to the east, Utah to the north, Nevada and California to the west, and Mexico to the south, as well as the southwestern corner of Colorado. Arizona's border with Mexico is 389 miles (626 km) long, on the northern border of the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California.

Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Historically part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848. The southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase.

Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with very hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, and spruce trees; the Colorado Plateau; some mountain ranges (such as the San Francisco Mountains); as well as large, deep canyons, with much more moderate summer temperatures and significant winter snowfalls. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff, Alpine, and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, and national monuments.

About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley (1948).

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Anasazi food storage building ruins at Tusayan Pueblo.
The known history of the Grand Canyon area stretches back 10,500 years when the first evidence for human presence in the area started. Native Americans have been living at Grand Canyon and in the area now covered by Grand Canyon National Park for at least the last 4,000 of those years. Anasazi, first as the Basketmaker culture and later as the more familiar Puebleoans, developed from the Desert Culture as they became less nomadic and more dependent on agriculture. A similar culture, the Cohonina, also lived in the canyon area. Drought in the late 13th century was the likely cause for both cultures to move on. Other cultures followed, including the Paiutes, Cerbat, and the Navajo, only to be later forced onto reservations by the United States Government. Under direction by conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado to find the fabled Seven Cities of Cibola, Captain García López de Cárdenas led a party of Spanish soldiers with Hopi guides to the Grand Canyon in September of 1540. Not finding what they were looking for, they left. Over 200 years passed before two Spanish priests became the second party of non-Native Americans to see the canyon.

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Horseshoe Bend
Credit: Chmehl

A panoramic view of Horseshoe Bend, a horseshoe-shaped meander in the Colorado River, from State Route 89. It is located approximately 4 miles (6.4 km) south of Page, Arizona, slightly downstream from the Glen Canyon Dam and Lake Powell.

Did you know...

Did you know?
  • ...that Arizona SB1070, the state's new immigration enforcement law, has attracted national attention as the broadest and strictest anti-illegal immigration measure in decades within the United States?






  • ... that despite witnessing the event from the bench, Arizona Territorial Chief Justice John Titus declined to bring charges against a prosecutor who tried to kill a criminal defendant in open court?

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Major Frederick Russell Burnham, DSO
Frederick Russell Burnham, DSO (May 11, 1861September 1, 1947), was an American scout and world traveling adventurer best known for his service as Chief of Scouts to the British Army in Colonial Africa and for teaching woodcraft (i.e., scoutcraft) to Robert Baden-Powell, becoming one of the inspirations to the founding of the Scouting Movement. But much earlier in his life, Burnham worked as a cowboy and a hired gun in Arizona for the losing side of the Pleasant Valley War, the most violent of the range wars. Marked for death and almost killed by a bounty hunter, he made the difficult journey out of Globe and hid out in Tombstone. In the 1880s in Arizona, he fought against the Apache, was hired as a scout for the U.S. Army in the Geronimo champaign, worked the mines, guarded Wells Fargo shipments, and became a professional hunter. Burnham is also known for having worked with Arizona boy scouts in 1936 on a state-wide campaign to save the Bighorn Sheep. This effort led to the establishment of two federally protected bighorn game ranges in Arizona, which Burnham himself dedicated in 1939: Kofa National Wildlife Refuge and Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge. His son was captain of the University of Arizona football team (1905-1908), and several of his descendants still reside in Arizona. His grandson, Russell Adam Burnham, is a Tucson native and was the U.S. Army's Soldier of the Year in 2003, and the U.S. Army Medical Corps NCO of the Year in 2007.

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Wikinews Arizona portal
  • March 21: Uber suspends self-driving car program after pedestrian death in Arizona, United States
  • October 27: United States Senator Jeff Flake announces retirement, citing 'profoundly misguided' party politics
  • July 25: Linkin Park's lead singer Chester Bennington dies at 41
  • June 27: Colombia beats USA 1-0 for 2016 Copa América bronze
  • June 5: Boxing great Muhammed Ali dies aged 74
  • March 28: Planned Parenthood asks Arizona federal judge for injunction
  • May 7: Solar powered plane completes first leg of transcontinental trip
  • April 29: Australian Jesse Williams drafted in fifth round by the NFL's Seattle Seahawks

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