Portal:Arctic

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The Arctic - There are many settlements in Earth's north polar region, the arctic. Countries with claims to Arctic regions are: the United States (Alaska), Canada, Denmark (Greenland), Norway, and Russia. Arctic circumpolar populations often share more in common with each other than with other populations within their national boundaries. As such, the northern polar region is diverse in human settlements and cultures.

Under international law, no country currently owns the North Pole or the region of the Arctic Ocean surrounding it. The five surrounding Arctic states, Russia, the United States (via Alaska), Canada, Norway and Denmark (via Greenland), are limited to a 200-nautical-mile (370 km; 230 mi) Exclusive Economic Zone around their coasts, and the area beyond that is administered by the International Seabed Authority.

Upon ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, a country has a ten year period to make claims to extend its 200-nautical-mile (370 km) zone.[1] Norway (ratified the convention in 1996[2]), Russia (ratified in 1997[2]), Canada (ratified in 2003[2]) and Denmark (ratified in 2004[2]) have all launched projects to base claims that certain Arctic sectors should belong to their territories.[3]

The North Pole is located in the middle of the Arctic Ocean, amidst waters that are almost permanently covered with constantly shifting sea ice. This makes it impossible to construct a permanent station at the North Pole (unlike the South Pole). However, the Soviet Union, and later Russia, have constructed a number of manned drifting stations, some of which have passed over or very close to the Pole. Recently, scientists have predicted that the North Pole may become seasonally ice-free by 2050 due to Arctic shrinkage.[4] More pessimistic predictions claim that the Arctic ice-cap may temporarily disappear in mid 2008.[5][6]


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Hunting and whaling have always been important ways to make a living on Greenland. One of the animals found here is the polar bear, which is on the coat of arms of the Danish royal family.
The history of Greenland, the world's largest island, is the history of life under extreme Arctic conditions: an ice cap covers about 95 percent of the island, largely restricting human activity to the coasts.

The first humans are thought to have arrived around 2500 BC. This group apparently died out and were succeeded by several other groups migrating from continental North America. To Europeans, Greenland was unknown until the 10th century, when Icelandic Vikings settled on the southwestern coast. This part of Greenland was apparently unpopulated at the time when the Vikings arrived; the direct ancestors of the modern Inuit Greenlanders are not thought to have arrived until around 1200 AD from the northwest. The Norse settlements along the southwestern coast eventually disappeared after about 500 years. The Inuit thrived in the icy world of the Little Ice Age and were the only inhabitants of the island for several centuries. Denmark-Norway nonetheless claimed the territory, and, after centuries of no contact between the Norse Greenlanders and their Scandinavian brethren, it was feared that the Greenlanders had lapsed back into paganism; so a missionary expedition was sent out to reinstate Christianity in 1721. However, since none of the lost Norse Greenlanders were found, Denmark-Norway instead proceeded to baptize the local Inuit Greenlanders and develop trading colonies along the coast as part of its aspirations as a colonial power. Colonial privileges were retained, such as trade monopoly.

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Uriel Sebree
Uriel Sebree (February 20, 1848 – August 6, 1922) was a career officer in the United States Navy. He entered the Naval Academy during the Civil War and served until 1910, retiring as a rear admiral. He is best remembered for his two expeditions into the Arctic and for serving as the second acting governor of American Samoa. He was also commander-in-chief of the Pacific Fleet.

After graduating from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1867, Sebree was posted to a number of vessels before being assigned to a rescue mission to find the remaining crew of the missing Polaris in the Navy's first mission to the Arctic. This attempt was only a partial success—the Polaris crew was rescued by a Scottish ship rather than the US Navy—but this led to Sebree's selection eleven years later for a second expedition to the Arctic. That mission to rescue Adolphus Greely and the survivors of the Lady Franklin Bay expedition was a success. Sebree was subsequently appointed as the second acting governor of American Samoa.

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Wikinews Arctic portal
  • April 25: UK announces £200 million polar research ship
  • September 4: Wikinews Shorts: September 2, 2010
  • September 3: Wikinews Shorts: September 3, 2010/Fuel tanker aground in Northwest Passage
  • June 21: Greenland assumes self rule Sunday
  • January 10: Canadian trio claim South Pole record for trans-Antarctic trip
  • December 10: Wikinews Shorts: December 10, 2008
  • October 28: Arctic ice thickness decreasing, suggests satellite data study
  • August 28: 73M-year-old fossilized fish found in Canada
  • August 27: Canadian military exercise NANOOK 2008 travels through uncharted waters
  • June 28: The North Pole may possibly be ice free by summer
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Polar bears near north pole

Description:Icebergs around Cape York, Greenland. The icebergs are beautiful and display many interesting shapes. You could see the iceberg with a hole at the image. The hole was caused by weathering effects - erosion by waves, wind and melting.

Author: Mila Zinkova This image was edited by User:CillanXC

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  • Iceland, though it lies so far to the north that it is partly within the Arctic Circle, is, like Norway, Scotland, and Ireland, affected by the Gulf Stream, so that considerable portions of it are quite habitable.

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Naajaat
Panoramic view of Naajaat in North-West Greenland. The ice cap is seen to the upper left..

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References

  1. ^ "United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (Annex 2, Article 4)". Retrieved 2007-07-26. 
  2. ^ a b c d http://www.un.org/Depts/los/reference_files/status2007.pdf
  3. ^ The Battle for the Next Energy Frontier: The Russian Polar Expedition and the Future of Arctic Hydrocarbons, by Shamil Midkhatovich Yenikeyeff and Timothy Fenton Krysiek, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, August 2007
  4. ^ "What is Global Warming?", climatecrisis.net
  5. ^ Expert: Arctic polar cap may disappear this summer_English_Xinhua
  6. ^ North Pole could be ice-free this summer, scientists say, CNN, June 27, 2008
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