Portal:Ancient Near East

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Akkadian signs for /ni/
The Akkadian language is the earliest attested Semitic language. It used the cuneiform writing system derived ultimately from ancient Sumerian, an unrelated language isolate. It was originally the language of the Akkadian Empire (ca. 2270 – 2083 BC (short chronology)), centered in Akkad. After the empire collapsed, the written language continued to be used as the official, diplomatic lingua franca throughout the ancient Near East until it was gradually displaced by Aramaic and later Greek more than a millennium later.

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Tiglath-Pileser III
Tiglath-Pileser III (Akkadian: Tukultī-apil-Ešarra, "my trust is in the son of Eshara", reigned 745 – 727 BC) is considered the founder of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. He is considered to be one of the most successful military commanders in world history, conquering most of the world known to the ancient Assyrians before his death. A former governor of Kalhu, he seized the throne on 13 Iyyar, 745 BC, in the midst of a civil war during which the royal family was killed.

Upon ascending the throne, Tiglath-Pileser instituted reforms to several sectors of the Assyrian state, which arguably revived Assyria's hegemony over the Near East. He curtailed the powers of the high officials, often by appointed eunuchs as governors to remove provincial dynastic threats, and reducing the size of provinces. He expanded the army by incorporating large numbers of conquered people in it, with native Assyrians comprising the cavalry and chariotry. This also allowed it to campaign year-round rather than seasonally, and he used it to conquer the entire middle east. Unlike previous Assyrian rulers, his heirs were able to maintain his empire.

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[[Image:|center|300x300px|Gold Helmet]]

Credit: Sumerophile
Gold Helmet
Meskalamdug's grave, Ur, ca. 26th century BC (National Museum of Iraq)

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Nabonidus Cylinder
...that the Hurrian language and the Urartian language are proposed to be distantly related to the modern Armenian language?

...that the Aramaic language, the lingua franca of the ancient Near East in Biblical times is still spoken as a first language today?

...that the syllabic cuneiform script was adapted to create a phonetic alphabet twice, for the Ugaritic language and for the Old Persian language?

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Ancient Near East on Wikimedia Commons Ancient Near East on Wikisource Archaeology on Wikinews Languages of the Ancient Near East on Wiktionary Ancient Near East on Wikibooks History on Wikiversity Ancient Near East on Wiktionary
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