Portal:Ancient Near East

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Akkadian Empire
The Akkadian Empire was centered in Akkad, an ancient city in central Mesopotamia. Despite its ancient importance, the city of Akkad has not yet been located. It was probably situated on the west bank of the Euphrates, between Sippar and Kish (ca 50 km (31 mi) southwest Baghdad).

The Akkadian Empire reached the height of its power between the 23rd and 22nd centuries BC, following the conquests of king Sargon of Akkad.

Because of the policies of the Akkadian Empire toward linguistic assimilation, the predominant Semitic dialect was named the Akkadian language, reflected in the word akkadû ("in the language of Akkad") during the Old Babylonian period to denote a Semitic-language version of a Sumerian text.

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Tiglath-Pileser III
Tiglath-Pileser III (Akkadian: Tukultī-apil-Ešarra, "my trust is in the son of Eshara", reigned 745 – 727 BC) is considered the founder of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. He is considered to be one of the most successful military commanders in world history, conquering most of the world known to the ancient Assyrians before his death. A former governor of Kalhu, he seized the throne on 13 Iyyar, 745 BC, in the midst of a civil war during which the royal family was killed.

Upon ascending the throne, Tiglath-Pileser instituted reforms to several sectors of the Assyrian state, which arguably revived Assyria's hegemony over the Near East. He curtailed the powers of the high officials, often by appointed eunuchs as governors to remove provincial dynastic threats, and reducing the size of provinces. He expanded the army by incorporating large numbers of conquered people in it, with native Assyrians comprising the cavalry and chariotry. This also allowed it to campaign year-round rather than seasonally, and he used it to conquer the entire middle east. Unlike previous Assyrian rulers, his heirs were able to maintain his empire.

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[[Image:|center|300x300px|Elamite Bust]]

Credit: Sumerophile
Elamite Bust
Elam, late 3rd millennium BC (Metropolitan Museum)

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Did you know...

[[Image:|100x100px|right|Earliest known pictographic writing c. 3500 BC]]...that c. 5300 BC Eridu was the first settlement in what would become the cradle of civilization?

...that the first writing system was developed in the late 4th millennium BC in Sumer? It was a logographic script which is still incompletely deciphered.

...that the Sumerian language, the Kassite language, and the Hattic language are all language isolates, unrelated to any other known language?

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